Formation of Zero Energy Parkings

People ‘s activities are caused by climate change and the speed of current changes is unprecedented. The uncontrolled use of fossil energy leads to the depletion of the world ‘s fossil energy reserves. The slightest energy savings, especially in the thickened areas, lead to a reduction in the emission of pollutants and therefore help to protect the environment.

In the construction of new parking lots and in the conversion of old ones, it is possible to dramatically reduce the volume of fuel consumed and, as a result, energy consumption and emissions. In the near future, the priority is to switch buildings to self-sustainment – they will consume a minimum amount of electricity that will be generated on its own. The main characteristic of the architecture of buildings of the future is ultra-low and even zero energy consumption.

A zero-energy building is a building with high energy efficiency, capable of
locally generating energy from renewable sources and consuming it in equal quantity during the year. When generating energy less than is necessary for consumption, the building is called a house with almost zero consumption. [1]

Principles to be followed in the design of energy efficient parking: reduction of energy requirements, use of surplus energy, reduction of the need for artificial cooling, provision of high-efficiency control systems of microclimate and other systems, including lighting; provision of renewable sources of solar, wind, etc. [2]

Net Zero Energy Building technology

Net Zero Energy Building technology has become a real technological
breakthrough in construction and is one of the most promising today. Several important components are the cornerstone of nZEV technology. First, it is a building project that is designed to reduce heat loss, maximize natural ventilation and illumination. Second, construction materials and equipment that completely eliminate heat loss and inefficient use of electricity, sunlight and water. And third, generating energy from renewable sources. [3]

Solar systems based on photovoltaic modules, which are well established
worldwide, are commonly used for power supply. They can operate independently (using batteries) or connect to a centralized power supply network, which allows them to exchange energy among themselves, and when the network is disconnected, backup systems are used. Photovoltaic panels are typically mounted on the roof of a building at an optimal angle of inclination by means of a supporting structure. Solar panels are reliable and do not cause trouble in maintenance. Wind generators can also be used to generate electricity. The task of solar collectors and heat pumps is to provide hot water supply and heating. [4]


The development of the project should be carried out in a direct reference to a specific climatic zone. In other words, the use of solar panels, for example, is effective in southern areas with more sunny days, and for buildings located in northern latitudes, wind farms seem to be more suitable. The construction of a building with zero energy consumption undoubtedly requires the use of modern building materials that meet the requirements of energy efficiency, heat saving and economical use of resources. The additional costs required to convert the parking project from basic building code standards to zero-energy parking will increase the total cost of the building by an average of 10%. At the same time, they will vary significantly depending on the location and architecture of the building. [5]

Although buildings, and especially parkings, with zero energy consumption remain rare even in developed countries, they are becoming increasingly important and popular. Such technologies significantly reduce environmental impacts and save building maintenance costs. Obviously, the creation of zero-emission cities in the 21st century is possible not only if new energy-efficient buildings are built, but also in the case of energy modernization of a large number of old buildings.

References

  1. Marszal A., Heiselber P. et al. Zero Energy Building – A review of definitions and calculation methodologies // Energy and Buildings – 2011. – № 43 (4). – pp. 971-979.
  2. Schukin A. Houses of the post-carbon era // Expert – 2010. – №3 (689). – pp. 77-81.
  3. S. Pless, P. Torcellini Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options // U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service – 2010. – pp. 1-14. DOI: 10.2172/983417
  4. Xiaodong Cao, Xilei Dai, Junjie Liu Building energy-consumption status worldwide and the state-of-the-art technologies for zero-energy buildings during the past decade // Energy and Buildings – 2016. – №128. – pp. 198-213.
  5. Rat G.I. , Mordinova M.A. The development of alternative energy sources in solving global energy problems // Bulletin of the Baikal State University. – 2012. – с. 132-135.

Author

Chubarova Daria

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