ESX vs. ESXi: Main Differences and Peculiarities

According to the latest statistics, VMware holds more than 75% of the global server virtualization market, which makes the company the undisputed leader in the field, with its competitors lagging far behind. VMware hypervisor provides you with a way to virtualize even the most resource-intensive applications while still staying within your budget. If you are just getting started with VMware software, you may have come across the seemingly unending ESX vs. ESXi discussion. These are two types of VMware hypervisor architecture, designed for “bare-metal” installation, which is directly on top of the physical server (without running an operating system). The aim of our article is to explain the difference between them.

If you are talking about a vSphere host, you may see or hear people refer to them as ESXi, or sometimes ESX.  No, someone didn’t just drop the i, there was a previous version of the vSphere Hypervisor called ESX.  You may also hear ESX referred to as ESX classic or ESX full form.  Today I want to take a look at ESX vs ESXi and see what the difference is between them.  More importantly, I want to look at some of the reasons VMware changed the vSphere hypervisor architecture beginning in 2009.

What Does ESXi Stand for and How Did It All Begin?

If you are already somewhat familiar with the VMware product line, you may have heard that ESXi, unlike ESX, is available free of cost. This has led to the common misconception that ESX servers provide a more efficient and feature-rich solution, compared to ESXi servers. This notion, however, is not entirely accurate.

ESX is the predecessor of ESXi. The last VMware release to include both ESX and ESXi hypervisor architectures is vSphere 4.1 (“vSphere”). Upon its release in August 2010, ESXi became the replacement for ESX. VMware announced the transition away from ESX, its classic hypervisor architecture, to ESXi, a more lightweight solution.

The primary difference between ESX and ESXi is that ESX is based on a Linux-based console OS, while ESXi offers a menu for server configuration and operates independently from any general-purpose OS. For your reference, the name ESX is an abbreviation of Elastic Sky X, while the newly-added letter “i” in ESXi stands for “integrated.” As an aside, you may be interested to know that at the early development stage in 2004, ESXi was internally known as “VMvisor” (“VMware Hypervisor”), and became “ESXi” only three years later. Since version 5, released in July 2011, only ESXi has continued.

ESX vs. ESXi: Key Differences

Overall, the functionality of ESX and ESXi hypervisors is effectively the same. The key difference lies in architecture and operations management. If only to shorten the VMware version comparison to a few words, ESXi architecture is superior in terms of security, reliability, and management. Additionally, as mentioned above, ESXi is not dependent on an operating system. VMware strongly recommends their users currently running the classic ESX architecture to migrate to ESXi. According to VMware documentation, this migration is required for users to upgrade beyond the 4.1 version and maximize the benefits from their hypervisor.

Console OS in ESX

As previously noted, ESX architecture relies on a Linux-based Console Operating System (COS). This is the key difference between ESX and ESXi, as the latter operates without the COS. In ESX, the function of the console OS is to boot the server and then load the vSphere hypervisor into the memory. After that, however, there is no further need for the COS as these are its only functions. Apart from the fact that the role of the console OS is quite limited, it poses certain challenges to both VMware and their users. COS is rather demanding in terms of the time and effort required to keep it secure and maintained. Some of its limitations are as follows:

  • Most security issues associated with ESX-based environment are caused by vulnerabilities in the COS;
  • Enabling third-party agents or tools may pose security risks and should thus be strictly monitored;
  • If enabled to run in the COS, third-party agents or tools compete with the hypervisor for the system’s resources.

In ESXi, initially introduced in the 3.5 VMware release, the hypervisor no longer relies on an external OS. It is loaded from the boot device directly into memory. The fact that the COS has been eliminated is beneficial in many ways:

  • The decreased number of components allows you to develop a secure and tightly locked-down architecture;
  • The size of the boot image is reduced;
  • The deployment model becomes more flexible and agile, which is beneficial for infrastructures with a large amount of ESXi hosts.

This way, the key point in the ESX vs. ESXi discussion is that the introduction of ESXi architecture resolved some of the challenges associated with ESX, thus enhancing security, performance, and reliability of the platform.Data Protection with NAKIVO Backup & Replication

ESX vs. ESXi: Basic Features of the Latter

For today, ESXi remains a “bare-metal” hypervisor that sets up a virtualization layer between the hardware and the machine’s OS. One of the key advantages of ESXi is that it creates a balance between the ever-growing demand for the resource capacity and affordability. By enabling effective partitioning of the available hardware, ESXi provides a smarter way for the hardware use. Simply put, ESXi lets you consolidate multiple servers onto fewer physical machines. This allows you to reduce both the IT administration effort and resource requirements, especially in terms of space and power consumption, thus helping you save on total costs in return.

Here are some of the key features of ESXi at a glance:

Smaller footprint 

ESXi may be regarded as a smaller-footprint version of ESX. For quick reference, “footprint” refers to the amount of memory the software (or hypervisor, in this context) occupies. In the case of ESXi 6.7, this is only about 130 MB, while the size of an ESXi 6.7 ISO Image is 325 MB. For comparison, the footprint of ESXi 6 is about 155 MB.

Flexible configuration models

VMware provides its users with a tool to figure out the recommended configuration limits for a particular product. To properly deploy, configure, and operate either physical or virtual equipment, it is advisable that you do not go beyond the limits that the product supports. With that, VMware creates the means for accommodating applications of basically any size. In ESXi 6.7, each of your VMs can have up to 256 virtual CPUs, 6 TB of RAM, 2 GB of video memory, etc. The size of the virtual disk is 62 TB.


The reason it was so easy to develop and install agents on the service console was because the service console was basically a linux VM sitting on your ESX host with access to the VMkernel.

This means the service console had to be patched just like any other Linux OS, and was susceptible to anything a Linux server was.

See a problem with that and running mission critical workloads?  Absolutely.

Rich ecosystem

VMware ecosystem supports a wide range of third-party hardware, products, guest operating systems, and services. As an example, you can use third-party management applications in conjunction with your ESXi host, thus making infrastructure management a far less complex endeavor. One VMware tool, Global Support Services (GSS), allows you to find out whether or not a given tech problem is related to the third-party hardware or software.

User-friendly experience

Since the 6.5 release, the vSphere Client is available in an HTML5 version, which greatly improves the user experience. With that release, there is also the vSphere Command-Line Interface (vSphere CLI), allowing you to initiate basic administration commands from any machine that has access to the given network and system. For development purposes, you can use the REST-based APIs, thus optimizing application provisioning, conditional access controls, self-service catalog, etc.


Coming back to VMware ESX vs. ESXi comparison, the two hypervisors are quite similar in terms of functionality and performance, at least when comparing the 4.1 release versions, though they are entirely different when it comes to architecture and operational management. Since ESXi does not rely on a general-purpose OS, unlike ESX, this provides you with the opportunity to resolve a number of security and reliability issues. VMware encourages migration to ESXi architecture; according to their documentation, migration can be performed with no VM downtime, although the process does require careful preparation.

To help you protect your VMware-based infrastructure, NAKIVO Backup & Replication offers a rich set of advanced features that allow for automatization, near-instant recovery, and resource saving. Below are outlined some of our product’s basic features that can be especially helpful in a VMware environment:

VMware Backup – Back up live VMs and application data, and keep the backup archive for as long as you need. With NAKIVO Backup & Replication, backups have the following characteristics:

  • Image-based – the entire VM is captured, including its disks and configuration files;
  • Incremental – after the initial full backup is complete, only the changed blocks of data are copied;
  • Application-aware – application data in MS Exchange, Active Directory, SQL, etc. is copied in a transactionally-consistent state.

VMware Replication – Create identical copies, aka replicas, of your VMs. Until needed, they remain in a powered-off state and don’t consume resources.

If a disaster strikes and renders your VM unavailable, you can fail over to this VM’s replica and have it running in basically no time.

Policy-Based Data Protection – Free up your time by automating the basic VM protection jobs. Create rules based on a VM’s name, size, tag, configuration, etc. to have the machine added to a specific job scope automatically. With policy rules in place, you no longer need to chase newly-added or changed VMs yourself.

NAKIVO Backup & Replication was created with the understanding of how important it is to achieve the lowest possible RPO and RTO. With backups and replicas of your workloads in place, you can near-instantly resume operations after a disaster, with little to no downtime or data loss.

101 Code Review: What is It and Why is It Important?

New to the concept of code review? This post explains what code review is and why it’s important.

What is Code Review?

As Wikipedia puts it, “Code review is systematic examination … of computer source code. It is intended to find and fix mistakes overlooked in the initial development phase, improving both the overall quality of software and the developers’ skills.”

What is the purpose of code review?

Code review is the most commonly used procedure for validating the design and implementation of features. It helps developers to maintain consistency between design and implementation “styles” across many team members and between various projects on which the company is working.

We perform code review in two levels. The first is known as peer review and the second is external review.

The code review process doesn’t begin working instantaneously (especially with external review), and our process is far from being perfect — although we have done some serious research around the topic [3]. So, we are always open to suggestions for improvement. 

Having said that, let’s dig into peer reviews.

What is a peer review?

A peer review is mainly focused on functionality, design, and the implementation and usefulness of proposed fixes for stated problems.

The peer reviewer should be someone with business knowledge in the problem area. Also, he or she may use other areas of expertise to make comments or suggest possible improvements.

In our company, this is necessary because we don’t do design reviews prior to code reviews. Instead, we expect developers to talk to each other about their design intentions and get feedback throughout the (usually non-linear) design/implementation process.

Accordingly, we don’t put limitations on what comments a reviewer might make about the reviewed code.

What do peer reviewers look for?

  • Feature Completion
  • Potential Side Effects
  • Readability and Maintenance
  • Consistency
  • Performance
  • Exception Handling
  • Simplicity
  • Reuse of Existing Code
  • Test Cases

Feature Completion

The reviewer will make sure that the code meets the requirements, pointing out if something has been left out or has been done without asking the client.

Potential Side Effects

The reviewer will check to see whether the changed code causes any issues in other features.

Readability and Maintenance

The reviewer will make sure the code is readable and is not too complicated for someone completely new to the project. Model and variable names should be immediately obvious (again, even to new developers) and as short as possible without using abbreviations.


Conducting peer reviews is the best approach for achieving consistency across all company projects. Define a code style with the team and then stick to it.


The reviewer will assess whether code that will be executed more often (or the most critical functionalities) can be optimized.

Exception Handling

The reviewer will make sure bad inputs and exceptions are handled in the way that was pre-defined by the team (it must be visible/accessible to everyone).


The reviewer will assess whether there are any simpler or more elegant alternatives available.

Reuse of Existing Code

The reviewer will check to see if the functionality can be implemented using some of the existing code. Code has to be aggressively “DRYed” (as in, Don’t Repeat Yourself) during development.

Test Cases

Finally, the reviewer will ensure the presence of enough test cases to go through all the possible execution paths. All tests have to pass before the code can be merged into the shared repository.

What is an external review?

An external review addresses different issues than peer reviews. Specifically, external reviews focus on how to increase code quality, promote best practices, and remove “code smells.”

This level of review will look at the quality of the code itself, its potential effects on other areas of the project, and its adherence with company coding guidelines.

Although external reviewers may not have domain expertise, they do have discretion to raise red flags related to both the design and code and to suggest ways to solve problems and refactor code as necessary.

What do external reviewers look for?

Readability and Maintenance

Similar to above, the reviewer will make sure the code is readable and is not too complicated for someone completely new. Again, all model and variable names have to be immediately obvious (even to new developers) and as short as possible without using abbreviations.

Coding Style

The reviewer will ensure that everyone adheres to a strict coding style and will use code editors’ built-in helpers to format the code.

Code Smells

Finally, the reviewer will keep an eye out (or should that be a nose out?) for code smells and make suggestions for how to avoid them.

In case the term is new to you, a code smell is “a hint that something has gone wrong somewhere in your code. Use the smell to track down the problem.”

Must external reviewers be “domain experts”?

External reviewers don’t have to have domain knowledge of the code that they will be reviewing. [4].

If they know about the domain, they will feel tempted to review it at a functional level, which could lead to burnout. However, if they have some business knowledge, they can estimate more easily how complex the review will be and can quickly complete the review, providing a more comprehensive evaluation of the code.

So, domain expertise is a bonus, not a requirement.

What if an external reviewer misses something?

We do not expect an external reviewer to make everything perfect. Something will most likely be missed. The external reviewer does not become responsible for the developer’s work by reviewing it.

How fast should developers receive a response from the external reviewer?

If a developer has requested an external review, he can expect some type of response within two hours. At the very least, the response should tell him a timeframe for completion.

In some cases, the external reviewers might not respond. They’re not perfect and might have too much work to do. Developers should feel free to ping them again if they don’t hear back within two hours or try with another external reviewer.

Why can’t developers simply merge their code into the main branch now and ask for an external review later?

There are many reasons this is a bad idea, but here are two of the most important:

  1. External reviews catch problems that would affect everyone if the code were merged into the main repository. It doesn’t make sense to cause everyone to suffer for problems that could have been caught by an external review.
  2. The process of merging code causes the developer to feel that the work is done, and it’s time to go on to the next thing. It’s silly to have people feeling like something is checked off the task list when it’s really not.

Can the external reviewer ask the developer to do something that is not precisely related to the code?

Yes, the external reviewer has some discretion here.

We don’t think that continuously making auxiliary changes that are unrelated to the core functionality is the right thing to do on reviews. On the other hand, small changes (or changes that help the code maintain a consistent style) may be requested.

There should be a reasonable relationship between the scope of the developed functionality and the scope of the requested change.


[1] Knous, M. & Dbaron, A. (2005). Code Review FAQ. Mozilla Development Network. Retrieved from

[2] Rigby, C., German, D. (2006). “A preliminary examination of code review processes in open source projects.” University of Victoria Technical Report: DCS-305-IR. Retrieved from

[3] Macchi, D., & Solari, M. (2012). Software inspection adoption: A mapping study. In Conferencia Latinoamericana de Informática (CLEI 2012).

[4] Mozilla (2012). Retrieved from

Can Wearable Devices Help Detect COVID-19?

As part of the ongoing search for COVID-19 solutions, researchers have found that data from wearable devices — Apple WatchesFitbits and the like — can act as an early warning system in detecting the illness.

According to FortuneApple, Fitbit, Garmin and other wearable device makers have donated devices to further early studies, even encouraging their own customers to participate in them.

Most recently, Fitbit and Apple have teamed up with the Stanford Healthcare Innovation Lab on its COVID-19 wearables study. While the findings have yet to be published, there’s evidence that the idea works. Stanford researchers were able to detect signs of the coronavirus before or at the time of diagnosis in in 11 of 14 patients by studying changes in their heart rate documented by Fitbits.

“There’s a huge amount of promise in these new technologies,” Dr. John Brownstein, chief innovation officer for Boston Children’s Hospital and a professor of epidemiology at Harvard Medical School, tells ABC News.

If smart devices, already worn by 21 percent of Americans, can truly flag early symptoms of COVID-19, they could help to safely reopen workplaces and schools — moving from their place as consumer gadgets to the front lines of healthcare.

How Can Fitness Trackers Help Spot Symptoms?

Wearable devices constantly monitor and collect their wearers’ vital signs, which is key to identifying a potential COVID-19 infection.

Scientists have found that even simple data collected by the devices — subtle temperature or biometric changes like an elevated heart rate or respiratory rate — can be useful in limiting the spread of the disease. And studies like those conducted by Scripps Research are taking advantage of this.

The Scripps study, known as DETECT (Digital Engagement and Tracking for Early Control and Treatment), largely relies upon a rich and diverse set of anonymized data collected from thousands of volunteers wearing smart watches and fitness trackers. The goal: to study patterns that might reveal the onset of viral infection, before symptoms are present.

“Our medical professionals work closely with scientific researchers to further our collective understanding of the threats this novel coronavirus presents,” Dr. Laura Nicholson, a hospitalist at Scripps Health and associate professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research, said in a news release from the organization. “The DETECT study is a great example of a collaborative effort to enhance the tools at our disposal to combat outbreaks and improve patient care.”

Why Using Wearables to Detect COVID-19 Symptoms Makes Sense

The earlier a person’s illness is detected, the easier it is to prevent the spread of the virus.

“We’re looking at this asymptomatic and contagious stage,” Dr. Ali Rezai, director of West Virginia University’s Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute and leader of WVU’s COVID-19 wearables study, tells ABC News. “Our goal is to detect it early in this phase and help people manage better with work and public safety.”

Instead of asking people to take frequent coronavirus tests, which can be slow and costly, gathering data from wearable devices can act as a check on a person’s health. Individuals would be able to monitor their own health data via smartphone app to look for potential warning signs of COVID-19 infection.

“The more you know about your body and what your ‘baseline’ is, the more you’re able to tell if something is off,” Scott Burgett, director of Garmin health engineering, tells Fortune. “Because Garmin lets you see your health stats over time, it is easy to track trends and notice deviations.”

To get a better understanding of what unusual health data might actually look like, Scripps has taken its research one step further, partnering with transit and healthcare workers in San Diego. The collaboration with frontline workers at the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System and Scripps Health will examine workers who are at higher risk of exposure to COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses.

“When your heart beats faster than usual, it can mean that you’re coming down with a cold, flu, coronavirus or other viral infection. Your sleep and daily activities can also provide clues,” Jennifer Radin, an epidemiologist at Scripps Research who is leading the study, said in the organization’s release.

“Being able to detect changes to these measurements early could allow us to improve surveillance, prioritize individuals for testing and help keep workplaces and communities safe,” she said.

Can Wearables Become Sickness Trackers?

While the idea of using wearables as a sort of symptom tracker shows promise, Brownstein tells ABC News that testing is still the only way to confirm whether an individual has actually contracted the coronavirus.

“You can’t really go buy a wearable and create a diagnosis of a particular condition,” Brownstein says. “We have to be very careful in terms of over-interpreting the data.”

He adds that wearables should not be viewed as a replacement for telehealth or an in-person visit, but rather as complementary to care patients are receiving.

Still, researchers and clinical staff are enthusiastic about the technology’s future in healthcare.

“There’s no way to get real surveillance with just testing,” Dr. Eric Topol, founder and director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute, tells Fortune. “We can’t do it frequently enough on a mass scale. But this you can do on that scale and you’re going to get a continuous signal.”

Why Nearshore Agile Development Makes Sense

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected how things get done, and it’s not business as usual anymore. However, it is increasingly necessary for companies to survive the economic strains that the pandemic may bring. This is why the support of nearshore software development partners has been crucial. 

Now more than ever, businesses need strategies that will guarantee their relevance past the COVID-19 pandemic. At such a difficult time, developing software is a smart decision to keep things running and ensure competitiveness even when things get back to the norm. So, why is nearshore software development crucial during this tough time? Take a look:

Proximity benefits 

Agile software development requires geographical proximity for it to work. It is a significant boost since your business doesn’t have to worry about travel times and costs, as it is the case with offshore locations. Whether you need to visit a provider or have them come to your premises, nearshore locations enhance accessibility and significantly reduce travel times.  

Facilitates integration

Nearshore software development providers enable you to engage with a team with cultural similarities, use the same language, and have technical expertise. It makes it easier for the external team to integrate with your existing staff bringing about efficiency. Work gets done appropriately, and every staff member executes their duties promptly. Easier integration is a significant boost for any business looking to remain profitable.

Better software

When you bring together people from different backgrounds and cultures when creating development teams, great things are bound to happen. The good thing about having people from different cultures is that they will have different ways of tackling various problems. The result is having a wide range of ideas, and you can then choose the best for your business. It also allows you to understand different experiences and problems that may not be clear to the rest of the team. When your organization has a larger pool of knowledge, things get done effectively and will allow you to concentrate on innovations and try creative solutions.

Using nearshore software development allows you to use the knowledge and expertise of different developers to your advantage. You then use their services to improve the skills and experiences of your business’s staff. 

Access to a skilled workforce

The talent shortage is a massive challenge for most businesses, not just in the US. Partnering with nearshore software development companies enables you to get access to some of the highly skilled talent that the market has to offer. At a time when the economic crisis is everything, everyone seems to talk about having a skilled workforce is essential to remain competitive and achieve business objectives.  

Nearshore software development is quite beneficial to any organization. No more than ever, it could be the solution that businesses need. However, before choosing to go with this option, it would help if you estimated all points and determined if it would enhance your business results.

Putting into consideration all the options at your disposal enables you to make sound decisions that should increase your productivity. 

Lean Canvas Examples of Multi-Billion Startups

Google’s story began with two guys spending hours in a garage trying to build the right thing. Another couple of friends – the future Airbnb founders – were short on cash and looking for a way to earn some.

Facebook, Youtube, Amazon can all boast similar bootstrapping origins. In modern terminology, they are lean startups that turned unicorns. These products have passed through the stage of a minimum viable product and managed to get over one billion US dollars of valuation.

The lean methodology, known for the introduction of different product management tools like lean canvas example, became popular after these mentioned giants were already well on their way to success. And, it’s most likely that their stories formed the backbone of this advanced mindset.

The rise of the lean startup

To some extent, the lean startup methodology was born from the ashes of the dot-com crash at the turn of the century. The irrational exuberance as Alan Greenspan named it led to the explosion of IPO prices and subsequent growth of trading prices. Around the turn of the millennium, the frenzy phase was replaced by the burning up phase during which the dot-com companies began to run out of cash rapidly. As a result, many of them went bankrupt, and the aftermath affected various supporting industries like advertising. The bubble burst and caused a nuclear winter for startup capital – angel and venture capital investments almost disappeared.

There emerged a need for an advanced methodology that would allow entrepreneurs to survive in the age of risk capital deficit. The former approach of “build first and wait for customers” had outlived its usefulness. Now, startup founders had to adapt to a new concept, based on the principle “build what customers want” and, most importantly thing, don’t rack up large costs for early changes in the pipeline.

The lean startup was a breath of fresh air. Though the name of this innovative approach was eternalized by Eric Ries in his book of the same name, he was not the only trailblazer. Steve Blank, Ian MacMillan, and others contributed to the invention of a new language that modern startups can speak. Lean is an agile development methodology, where you need to shape a hypothesis about your product/business first and then validate it with customers in service. For example, you build a minimum viable product, an iterative prototype of the would-be functional solution, and make it available for real customers to get their feedback. If it’s negative, you have not failed. You can pivot and correct the course of your idea, or change the business model. At the same time, the methodology provides numerous tools for effective strategic management, in which canvases play a significant role.

What is a lean canvas?

Ash Maurya’s brainchild, lean canvas, is a revamped business model canvas, which allows you to investigate business vistas using the problem-solution approach. This improved canvas was perfect for startups. It dovetails nicely with the lean methodology and lets you understand your customers’ needs, focus on actionable metrics and deliver a rapid idea-to-product transformation. If you are curious about its practical use, check this video explaining how to work with the tool through the example of Uber.

Today, the lean canvas template is in high demand among entrepreneurs. One of Learnmetrics founders have called it “a brilliant tool”, and the Brunch & Budgets CEO Pamela Capalad emphasises its improved usability compared to a multi page business plan. And what would Jeff Bezos or Steve Chen have said about the canvas if they could use it back in their bootstrapping days? That’s our goal in this article – to imagine lean startup canvas example for former unicorn startups that now are globally-known brands. Let’s give it a go!

Five multi-billion startups and their lean canvas examples

We went with two fundamental requirements when choosing the companies to build a lean business model canvas for. First, we picked unicorn startups. Second, we picked the companies founded before The Lean Startup’s first release in 2011.

We also decided to take a look at two different types of startup companies : invention- and money-driven. For example, the founders of Facebook, YouTube, and Google initially did not focus on making money. They were just having fun in by inventing solutions or technologies to make human life better. Amazon and Airbnb, on the other hand, were originally profit-oriented startups. Their founders set money as the primary goal of their endeavors.

Let’s now try to walk in the founders’ shoes and fill in the blank lean canvas! How about we start with Google?


Year of foundation: 1998
Venue: Menlo Park, CA
Original name: Googol
Founded by: Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Total funding amount: $36.1 million (last funding in 2000)
IPO: raised $1.7 billion in 2004

In terms of popularity and global adoption, Google is an undisputed number one company. What originated as an advanced web search engine has grown into a multinational giant that specializes in online advertising, cloud computing, hard and soft products, and many others. It’s hard to believe, but Google’s bootstrapping began in a garage, where two Montessori minds implemented their knowledge obtained in the Stanford University more than 20 years ago.

Sergey Brin and Larry Page saw gaps in Excite or Yahoo – search tools of those days and strived to improve upon their idea – to create a reliable, comprehensive and speedy search engine. The synergy of their collaboration resulted in the PageRank algorithm, which was based on the Page’s project nicknamed BackRub. According to modern realia, PageRank was the startup’s unfair advantage. Google’s founders made attempts to sell the technology to their potential competitors but failed. So, they changed the direction towards developing their research project into the lean startup. Fortunately, the co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Andy Bechtolsheim, saw some potential in their work and invested $100K. In 2018, the market value of Google exceeded $700 billion.

Now, let’s take a look at the Google lean canvas Brin and Page would likely have tailored twenty years ago.


Year of foundation: 2004
Venue: Cambridge, MA
Original name: Thefacebook
Founded by: Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes
Total funding amount: $2.3 billion (last funding in 2012)
IPO: raised $18.4 billion in 2012

Facebook is one of the projects that came out after the burst of the bubble. The story of the most famous social network began not in a garage but in the Harvard dormitory, where Mark Zuckerberg and company worked on a student directory featuring photos and basic information. The first fruit of their collaboration was Facemash, a website allowing students to rank each other’s photos. However, this early version didn’t catch on.

Thefacebook, the original version of the product we know today, was the result of the good and bad lessons of Facemash. The first investments in the startup amounted to $2K – $1K each by Saverin and Zuckerberg. The website coverage gradually expanded beyond the borders of Harvard to the universities of the USA and Canada. Thefacebook dropped “the” from its name in August 2005 and became an open social network.

If Zuckerberg and Saverin had wanted to make a Facebook lean canvas at the outset, it might have looked like this:


Year of foundation: 2005
Venue: San Mateo, CA
Founded by: Jawed Karim, Steve Chen, and Chad Hurley
Total funding amount: $11.5 million (last funding in 2006)
Acquired by Google for $1.7 billion in 2006

Meet another brainchild of post irrational exuberance. The founders of YouTube didn’t get their start in a garage or dormitory. They chose an apartment above a pizzeria, and that’s the place where the world’s largest video hosting service was born. The Internet users of that time had had no YouTube alternatives since ShareYourWorld, the first video hosting website, which closed in 2001, and Vimeo had just started on its way (it was founded three months before the activation of the domain name “”). Eventually, Jawed, Steve and Chad, former PayPal employees, driven by the idea to create a video version of online dating service Hot or Not, decided to refocus their efforts on developing a video hosting startup.

Since the nuclear winter for startup capital hade come to an end, the promising project was not short of money. Sequoia Capital was the initial investor, which put in $3.5 million ten months after the domain name was activated. In 2006, YouTube was purchased by Google for a whopping $1.65 billion.

The YouTube lean canvas would reflect the following problems and solutions as of 2005.


Year of foundation: 1994
Venue: Bellevue, Washington, D.C.
Original name: Calabra
Founded by: Jeff Bezos
Total funding amount: $108 million ($8 million of funding before IPO)
IPO: raised $54 million in 1997

Today, the startup named after the second longest river on the globe is known for a plethora of activities including e-commerce, cloud computing, and even artificial intelligence. Well, almost twenty five-years ago it was just an online bookstore that dared traditional book stores. However, yet at that time Jeff Bezos already wanted to build “an everything store”.

Amazon was founded right in the middle of the bubble and was lucky to survive the following crash. Its story began in a garage, and the initial startup capital consisted of the personal savings of Bezos’ parents. At this period, web usage was growing at lightning speed, and most entrepreneurs wanted to ride the Internet wave. Jeff was considering twenty products that he could potentially sell online. However, books won due to their universal demand and low cost.

This is how the Amazon lean canvas would have looked back in 1994.


Year of foundation: 2008
Venue: San Francisco, CA
Original name: AirBed & Breakfast
Founded by: Brian Chesky, Joe Gebbia, Nathan Blecharczyk
Total funding amount: $4.4 billion (last funding in 2018)

Though the core principles of the lean startup methodology were introduced by Eric Ries three years after Airbnb’s foundation, this project had already followed them. Everything began with the simple need to make money because Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia fell short on cash to pay their rent. The solution was inspired by circumstance – all hotels were overbooked just before some local conference. That’s how the AirBed & Breakfast website came out in 2007. The guys lodged three guests on air mattresses and treated them with breakfast for $80 per each per night. In modern terms, they released a minimum viable product to validate their idea.

After that, the Airbnb team grew (Nathan Blecharczyk joined them), survived several unlucky releases and failed to attract any of the 15 angel investors they contacted. The trio sought out other ways to nurture their pet project including the sale of cereals (that allowed them to earn $30K). Another $20K was funded by the prestigious startup accelerator Y Combinator. As soon the startup name turned from Air Bed & Breakfast into simple Airbnb, it got its first significant investment: Sequoia Capital (YouTube’s first investor) seeded $600K one month later (April 2009). In 2018, the market value of the company reached $38 billion, and they might make an IPO this year.

Let’s have a look at a possible Airbnb lean canvas.

The examples above are only our vision of how those startups could have leveraged the lean canvas framework. Do you think it looks like something the founders of those startups would’ve done?

At Railsware we also take advantage of lean canvas for both our clients’ projects such as Calendly and our own products like Smart Checklist for Jira.

Why lean canvas? It combines simplicity and power in one go. This tool poses rather simple but essential questions. Some product owners skip answering them at the outset, which is not the right way to do things. Railsware believes all the questions to be faced in the future like ‘how to promote a product?’, ‘what monetization approach to select?’ and so on must be answered at the early stages.

How Railsware uses lean canvas for product development

The lean startup methodology plays a big role in how we approach product development. And we are glad to share a piece of our craft.

The foundation stone of our pipeline is the Inception. It’s a discovery session at which we attempt to describe the product context through the ‘user-problem-solution’ prism. We are interested mostly in these three values since they represent our scope of activities in the majority of projects. Other components specified in the canvas like Channels, Existing Alternatives, and Revenue Streams are also up for during the Inception sessions. Practically, we rest upon a customized value proposition canvas, which helps us create a constructive roadmap of a project. So far, we use this approach to all products we work on.

The Ideas Incubator is yet another activity that we use to further unfold the advantages of the lean startup model canvas. As you can judge from the name, this session is devoted to nurturing our ideas to be converted into real products. You can call it a preliminary research stage, which includes filling in the lean canvas for each idea as well. We validate our ideas according to a profound analysis and avoid any progress based on a blind belief in success.

Use Lean Canvas for your product!

In this article, we tried to show that the concept of the lean startup had been bearing fruit even before it was defined and put in writing. The brilliant minds who founded Google, Facebook and other prominent companies were led by a gut feeling that brought them to success. And the fact that we applied the lean business model canvas example for each startup case is just an attempt to reveal the power of this product management tool. We do encourage you to use it and benefit from it, as well as other progressive solutions in your product development efforts. Perhaps, your project will also join the above mentioned cohort of unicorn startups in the future!

Installing and Configuring an ODBC Driver

What is ODBC Driver and Data Source?

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard application programming interface that allows external applications to access data from diverse database management systems. The ODBC interface provides for maximum interoperability – an application that is independent of any DBMS, can access data in various databases through a tool called an ODBC driver, which serves as an interface between an external program and an ODBC data source, i.e. a specific DBMS or cloud service.

The ODBC driver connection string is a parameterized string that consists of one or more name-value pairs separated by semi-colons. Parameters may include information about the data source name, server address and port, username and password, security protocols, SQL dialects, and many more. The required information is different depending on the specific driver and database. Here’s an example of ODBC connection string:

DRIVER={Devart ODBC Driver for Oracle};Direct=True;Host=;SID=ORCL1020;User ID=John;Password=Doe

ODBC Drivers are powerful connectors for a host of database management systems and cloud services that allow you to connect to your data from virtually any third-party application or programming language that supports the ODBC API. By a third-party application, we mean tools like Power BI, Tableau, Microsoft Excel, etc.

Installing ODBC Driver for Windows 10

1. Run the downloaded installer file. If you already have another version of the driver installed in the system, you will get a warning — click Yes to overwrite the old files, though it’s recommended to first uninstall the old version. If this is the first time you install Devart ODBC driver, just click Next.

2. Read and accept the license agreement, then click Next.

3. Select the installation directory for the ODBC driver and click Next.

4. In the Select Components tab, select which version of the driver to install (64-bit / 32-bit), and whether to include the help files.

5. Confirm or change the Start Menu Folder and click Next.

6. Input your activation key or choose Trial if you want to evaluate the product before getting a license. You can load the activation key by clicking on the Load Activation Key… button and selecting the license file from your machine. Click Next and then Install.

7. After the installation is completed, click Finish.

Configuring a DSN for ODBC Driver in Windows 10 (64-bit)

Before connecting a third-party application to a database or cloud source through ODBC, you need to set up a data source name (DSN) for the ODBC driver in the Data Source Administrator. A 64-bit version of the Microsoft Windows operating system includes both the 64-bit and 32-bit versions of the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) Data Source Administrator tool (odbcad32.exe):

  • The 32-bit version of odbcad32.exe is located in the C: \Windows\SysWoW64 folder.
  • The 64-bit version of odbcad32.exe is located in the C: \Windows\System32 folder.

1. In your Windows Search bar, type ODBC Data Sources. The ODBC Data Sources (64 bit) and ODBC Data Sources (32 bit) apps should appear in the search results.

Alternatively, you can open the Run dialog box by pressing Windows+R, type odbcad32 and click OK.

Yet another way to open the ODBC Data Source Administrator is via the command prompt: enter cmd in the search bar and click the resulting Command Prompt button. Enter the command odbcad32 and hit Enter.

2. Since most modern computer architectures are 64-bit, we’ll select the 64-bit version of the ODBC Data Source Administrator to create a DSN for our ODBC driver. The odbcad32.exe file displays two types of data source names: System DSNs and User DSNs. A User DSN is only accessible to the user who created it in the system. A System DSN is accessible to any user who is logged in into the system. If you don’t want other users on the workstation to access your data source using the DSN, choose a User DSN.

3. In the administrator utility, click on the Add button. The Create New Data Source dialog box will display the list of installed ODBC drivers in the system. Choose the needed driver from the list. The choice of the driver is determined by the data source you are trying to connect to — for example, to access a PostgreSQL database, choose Devart OBDC Driver for PostgreSQL. Click Finish.

4. Enter a name for your data source in the corresponding field. Fill in the parameters for the ODBC connection string, which is driver-specific. In most of our ODBC drivers for databases, a connection string with basic parameters requires the user to only input their server address, port number, and login credentials, since Devart ODBC drivers allow direct access to the database without involving additional client libraries.

5. Click Test Connection to verify connectivity. If you see the Connection Successful message, click OK to save the DSN. You should now see your new DSN in the User DSN tab of the ODBC Data Source Administrator tool.

Configuring a DSN for ODBC Driver in Windows 10 (32-bit)

The steps for configuring an ODBC DSN for a 32-bit driver are practically the same as for the 64-bit driver, except for the step where you select the 32-bit version of the ODBC Data Source Administrator. Running the odbcad32 command in the Command Prompt or in the Run dialog box will start the 64-bit version of the ODBC administrator on the 64-bit Windows by default, therefore your best option is to select the 32-bit version of the administrator in the search results of the Windows search box.

Note though that if you have both versions (32-bit and 64-bit) of the driver installed and you have configured a User DSN (in contrast to a System DSN), you will be able to use the same DSN for 32-bit and 64-bit applications (see the Platform column in the screenshot below).

In a situation where you need to use an application that is available only in 32-bit, the 32-bit ODBC driver does the trick. An example is Apache OpenOffice, which is distributed as a 32-bit application.

Step-by-step ODBC Data Source Setup in Windows 10

  1. Press Windows + R to open the Run dialog.
  2. Type in odbcad32 and click OK.
  3. In the ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog box, select the System DSN or User DSN tab.
  4. Click Add. The Create New Data Source dialog box should appear.
  5. Locate the necessary driver in the list and click Finish.
  6. In the Data Source Name and Description fields, enter the name and a description for our ODBC data source, respectively.
  7. Fill in the driver-specific connection string parameters, such as server address, port, username, password, etc.
  8. Click Test Connection to verify connectivity.
  9. Click OK to save the DSN.

Convert a Database from Microsoft Access to MySQL

The current version of dbForge Studio for MySQL does not allow to import the whole Access database at once. Instead, there is an option to migrate separate Access tables in MySQL format.

The article below describes the entire process of converting Microsoft Access tables to MySQL.

Importing Data

1. Open dbForge Studio for MySQL.

2. On the Database menu click Import Data. The Data Import wizard opens.

3. Select MS Access import format and specify a location of Source data. Click Next.

If the Source data is protected with a password, the Open MS Access Database dialog box appears where you should enter the password.

NOTE: To perform the transfer you should have Microsoft Access Database Engine installed. It will install components that can be used to facilitate transfer of data between Microsoft Access files and non-Microsoft Office applications. Otherwise, the Import wizard will show the following error:

Therefore, if you face the problem, download the missing components here.

Note, that the bit versions of your Windows OS and Microsoft Access Database Engine should coincide, that is, if you have the 64-bit system, you should use the 64-bit installer. However, there are cases when the 32-bit Microsoft Access is installed on the 64-bit Windows OS. In this case perform the following steps before installing.

  • Click Start, click All Programs, and then click Accessories.
  • Right-click Command prompt, and then click Run as Administrator.
  • Type file path leading to installer and “/passive”. It should look like this:

In the case above the Windows OS is 64-bit, but the installed version of Microsoft Access is 32-bit. That is why the 64-bit installer is required.

4. Select a source table. To quickly find a table in the list, enter characters of a required name into the Filter field. The list will be filtered to show only those that contain such characters in their names.

5. Specify a Target MySQL connection, and a database to convert the data to. Also, since we need to create a new table, select New table and specify its name. Click Next.

6. Map the Source columns to the Target ones. Since we create a new table in MySQL, dbForge Studio for MySQL will automatically create and map all the columns, as well as data types for each column. If the automatic match of columns’ data types is not correct, you may edit data types  manually.

Target columns are located in the top and the Source columns at the bottom of the wizard page (see the screen-shot below). Click Source column fields and select required columns from the drop-down list.

NOTE: To cancel mapping of all the columns, click Clear Mappings on the toolbar. To restore it, click Fill Mapping.

7. To edit the Column Properties, double-click a column or right-click a column and select Edit Column.

8. Click Import and see the import progress. dbForge Studio for MySQL will notify you whether the conversion completed successfully or failed. Click the Show log file button to open the log file.

9. Click Finish.

NOTE: You can save the import settings as a template for future uses. Click the Save Template button on any wizard page to save the selected settings. Next time you should only select a template and specify a location of the Source data – all the settings will be already set.

Setting Up Constraints

After importing all necessary tables you can to set up (or correct) relations between the converted tables by creating/editing foreign keys (if required).

Also, you may create primary keys, if you skipped this step during creation of a table.

Creating Foreign Key

  1. Open the table you need and choose New Foreign Key from the Table menu.
  2. Add required columns, select referenced table and referenced constraint, and click OK.


  1. Switch to the Constraints tab.
  2. Create a constraint from the context menu.

NOTE: To create a foreign key, the referenced table should have a unique index, otherwise dbForge Studio will prompt you to create it. Click Yes in the dialog and the unique index will be added.

Creating Primary Key

  1. Right-click a table, select Edit Table, switch to Constraints tab. To create a key, right-click on the white area and select New Primary Key.
  1. Add required columns to the key and click OK. You can also switch to the Constraints tab and create the primary key within context menu.


In this article we reviewed the aspects of importing MS Access database to MySQL database by means of dbForge Studio for MySQL. Despite the fact, that the current version of the program does not include the tool to migrate a MS Access database at once, the described above importing mechanism allows to perform the import fast and easily.

dbForge Studio for MySQL supports the .accdb format.


Do you want to connect your life with IT, but being simple programmer seams too boring for you? Do you want to do work for special missions and become a hacker? Then, it is the right time to learn about languages which help them to perform the job. We have made a research, and hope it will help you to make a right choice to become a hacker. Generally hacking is divided into three sections: Web Hacking, Exploit Writing and Reverse Engineering and each of those requires different programming language.


An impressive amount of applications have its versions in the Web, so it is clearly important to learn Web Hacking to be successful in the job. In order to learn it, you need to know the Web coding, as hacking is basically the process of breaking the code. So there are four the most important languages to learn:


Programmers say that that is the easiest language, which is mostly used in static markup presented in each website. Learning HTML helps a programmer to understand the logic and responses of the web actions.


That is also very popular programming tool for use for improvement of the user interface and shorter time of the response. Knowledge of the JS helps to understand client-side of the website, in the result it helps to find flaws.


This language is responsible for managing the database of Web applications. Among programmers, PHP is treated as the most important language, as it controls all actions on the site and server.


The structured query language is storing and managing sensitive and confidential data, including user credentials, bank, and personal related data and information regarding visitors to the websites. This is mostly used by black hackers, so if you want to play on the white side then learn this language and find website weaknesses.


The Exploit Writing is used for cracking the software, and mostly the Python or Ruby are used for such actions.


This language is mostly used for creating the exploit and tools that are the most important reason for learning the Python. Also, it has explicit flexibility with the possibility of creation exploits, and for that, you need to be good at Python.


It is an object-oriented language and is very useful for exploit writing, which is used for interpretation scripting by hackers. Metasploit framework, which was written with Ruby is the most famous hacking tool.


The process is based on converting the code written with a high-level language, to the low level one, without changing the original program. The reverse engineering is ought to find flaws and bugs easily. In order to perform the best results in the process, there is a need to be professional in C, C++, Java and Assembly language.

  • C/C++. Everyone knows that C is the mother of programming languages, used in software creation for Linux and Windows. As well as, those languages are very important is exploit writing and reverse engineering. C++ is a more powerful variation of C and is used for a big amount of programs and games.
  • Java. The release of the Java had run with the slogan “write once, run anywhere, which means that language is a powerful source for creating backdoor exploits and that once that can kill the computer.
  • Assembly Language. This language does not have such popularity, as ones previously described, basically, that is a very complicated low-level programming language. With the help of this one, it is possible to crack hardware or software, mostly it is used in reverse engineering. As for this process knowledge of a low-level language is a crucial thing.


Doesn’t matter, will it be surprising for most people, or not there are different classes of hackers. Most of them are classified by three the most common categories, white, black and grey hat ones. Even though, a large number of people are sure that hackers are only white or black ones. Lets review description of their classification.

  • White hat. Those hackers work by the rules, with no personal gain, without breaking the law with all contractual permissions. White hat hackers work in order to protect personal or companies information from black hackers.
  • Black hat. It is completely opposite to the white ones, the run illegal activities, breaking the rules in order to gain personal and other kinds of sensitive data. They break the websites, servers and bank account for personal gain.
  • Grey hat. This kind is something in between of the white and black ones. They follow some rules while breaking the other ones. Probably they work with good intentions, but nobody else thinks the same.


The conclusion which is coming to the mind, after everything described above – in order to become a good hacker you need to know a lot of languages. And that is quite obvious, as there is a big diversity of languages nowadays, which makes a hacking process more complicated. So, a good hacker should be a perfect software engineer, who understands the logic of coding, user actions and what type of languages is used for different programs.

The Architects of the IT world

The backbone of every thriving modern enterprise is held up and supported by skilled IT architects. An Architect for Information Technology is different from an architect that produces well-designed infrastructures. An IT Architect still designs but in an entirely different way and area of expertise.

The Role of a Cloud Architect

Today’s cloud architects are in charge of designing cloud environments, usually giving a definitive guide in the cycle of development of a cloud-based solution and project up to its deployment. They need to have an in-depth understanding of all cloud-based concepts and the components that are integral to the steady delivery of the cloud service. A cloud architect must be an expert not just in cloud-based functions and tools but should also be knowledgeable in the cloud-based infrastructure and able to provide well-strategised build-and-release directed to the development teams.

Technically speaking, cloud architects are decision-makers when it comes to the required network, suppliers to team up with and how to combine all of the procured pieces and parts from varying vendors. They also dictate what kind of API to implement, and what specific industry standards to adopt into the project.

It takes more than just knowledge in IT and being tech-savvy to make it as a cloud architect. There are specific skills required along the way. Here is a list of the qualifications and skills a cloud architect should possess or accomplish to be exceptional for the role:

An enterprise computing background

It takes more than one degree in the computing field to pass like a cloud architect. A robust general experience in the departments of MIS, computer engineering, computer science, and similar studies capped with a broad knowledge of how enterprises utilise IT solutions for various functions and reasons.

Technical skills in enterprise computing

It is but logical that cloud architects are experts in all things IT, from its core to the very last detail that binds that makes it up. Cloud architects are usually on the specialists on the different and vast disciplines of technology. These areas include but not limited to; programming languages, databases, web development and tools, infrastructure, networking, ERP and of course client systems and corresponding applications.

People Skills

This is not the usual skill required for a regular IT guy. For an IT architect, on the other hand, it is utmost crucial to have excellent communication or people skills. A cloud architect must be able to convey, effectively direct, and persuade through writing and in person, whether it is a one-on-one meeting or a panel discussion.

Leader Vibes

A cloud architect should be able to exhibit strong leadership skills to effectively convince different groups in the organization apart from the main decision-makers that the makings of a cloud environment are beneficial for the enterprise. A leadership style that best fits this job is the inverted pyramid style, which, according to our portal, is the best strategy to empower people. Learn more about at:


Cloud architects to jumpstart their role in an enterprise should be able to pinpoint the areas that need improvement or mending — being curious plays a critical part of the job as much as being analytical.

Be an architect

In essence, architects (of any field) should become planners and organisers. Projects typically take on an extended period (a few months to years) to materialise and complete. A cloud architect should be able to comply with these basics to manage a project every step of the way.

Be business-minded

Cloud architects’ focus might be on technology, but the solutions they come up with will affect the entire organization. They must put themselves in a position where they fully comprehend what the company needs, how much the solution will cost the business financially and strategically aligning the design for overall success.

What a Cloud Architecture Job entails?

Job openings are plenty across major tech hub cities, and the salaries, especially in areas of IT with high-demand on architect skills, can pay up to $150,000 or over.

The job title usually goes to those with 8-10 years of experience and comes to those senior staff in the later stages of their careers. Strong technical skills with a mix of soft skills like the ones outlined above all contribute and necessary for those who want to fill the job position.

Coding For Kids: Getting Started Learning Programming

Coding For Kids: Getting Started Learning Programming

Computer programming is rapidly becoming increasingly popular. In turn, more and more parents want their children to learn coding – and for good reason. According to the Bureau of Labor, median pay for software developers is $103,560 per year, with demand expected to increase by 24% between 2016 and 2026, a growth rate which is significantly faster than that of other occupations. Computer programming also teaches a number of important life skills, like perseverance, algorithmic thinking, and logic. Teaching your kids programming from a young age can set your child up for a lifetime of success.

While programming is offered by a some schools in the US, many schools don’t include regular computer science education or coding classes in their curriculum. When offered, it is usually limited to an introductory level, such as a few classes using or Scratch. This is mainly because effective education in computer programming generally depends on teachers with ample experience in computer science or engineering.

This is where Juni can help. With instructors from the top computer science universities in the US, Juni students work under the tutelage of instructors who have experience in the same advanced coding languages and tools used at companies like Facebook, Google, and Amazon. Juni’s project-based approach gives students hands-on experience with professional languages like Python, Java, and HTML. The rest of this article addresses some of the most frequently asked questions about coding for kids.

How can I get my child interested in coding?

Tip 1: Make it Fun!

A good way to get your child excited about programming is to make it entertaining! Instead of starting with the traditional, “Hello World” approach to learning programming, intrigue your children with a curriculum that focuses on fun, engaging projects.

Tip 2: Make it Relatable

Children are more likely to stay interested in something that they can relate to. This is easy to do with coding because so many things, from videogames like Minecraft, to movies like Coco, are created with code! Reminding students that they can learn the coding skills necessary to create video games and animation is a great motivator.

Tip 2: Make it Approachable

Introducing programming to young children through lines of syntax-heavy code can make coding seem like a large, unfriendly beast. Starting with a language like Scratch instead, which uses programming with blocks that fit together, makes it easier for kids to focus on the logic and flow of programs.

How do I teach my child to code?

There are a few approaches you can take in teaching kids how to code. Private classes with well-versed instructors are one of the most conducive ways to not only expose your kids to programming and proficiently develop your children’s coding skills, but also sustain their interest in the subject.

At Juni, we offer private online classes for students ages 5-18 to learn to code at their own pace and from the comfort of their own homes.

Via video conference, our students and instructors share a screen. This way, the instructor is with them every step of the way. The instructor first begins by reviewing homework from the last class and answering questions. Then, the student works on the day’s coding lesson.

The instructor can take control of the environment or annotate the screen — this means the instructor can type out examples, help students navigate to a particular tool, or highlight where in the code the student should look for errors — all without switching seats. Read more about the experience of a private coding class with Juni.

We have designed a curriculum that leans into each student’s individual needs. We chose Scratch as the first programming language in our curriculum because its drag-and-drop coding system makes it easy to get started, focusing on the fundamental concepts. In later courses, we teach Python, Java, Web Development, AP Computer Science A, and a training program for the USA Computing Olympiad. We even have Juni Jr. for students ages 5-7.

Other Options: Coding Apps and Coding Games

There are a number of coding apps and coding games that children can use to get familiar with coding material. While these don’t have the same results as learning with an instructor, they are a good place to start. has been featured by Hour of Code, and it is used by public schools to teach introductory computer science.’s beginner modules use a visual block interface, while later modules use a text-based interface. has partnered with Minecraft and Star Wars, often yielding themed projects.

Codeacademy is aimed at older students who are interested in learning text-based languages. Coding exercises are done in the browser, and have automatic accuracy-checking. This closed platform approach prevents students from the full experience of creating their own software, but the curriculum map is well thought out.

Khan Academy is an online learning platform, designed to provide free education to anyone on the internet. Khan Academy has published a series on computer science, which teaches JavaScript basics, HTML, CSS, and more. There are video lessons on a number of topics, from web page design to 2D game design. Many of the tutorials have written instructions rather than videos, making them better suited for high school students.

What is the best age to start learning to code?

Students as young as 5 years old can start learning how to code. At this age, we focus on basic problem solving and logic, while introducing foundational concepts like loops and conditionals. It is taught using kid-friendly content that is interesting as well as projects that involve creativity and an interface that isn’t as syntax-heavy. At ages 5-10, students are typically learning how to code using visual block-based interfaces.

What are the best programming languages for kids?

With young students (and even older students), a good place to start building programming skills is a visual block-based interface, such as Scratch. This allows students to learn how to think through a program and form and code logical steps to achieve a goal without having to learn syntax (i.e. worrying about spelling, punctuation, and indentation) at the same time.

When deciding on text-based languages, allow your child’s interests to guide you. For example, if your child is interested in creating a website, a good language to learn would be HTML. If they want to code up a game, they could learn Python or Java.

What kind of computer does my child need to learn to code?

This depends on your child’s interests, your budget, and the approach you would like to take. Many online coding platforms, like, are web-based and only require a high-speed internet connection. Web-based platforms do not require computers with much processing power, which means that they can be run on nearly any computer manufactured within the last few years. Higher-level programming using professional tools requires a Mac, PC, or Linux with a recommended 4G of RAM along with a high-speed internet connection.

Why should kids learn to code?

Reason 1: Learning to code builds resilience and creativity

Coding is all about the process, not the outcome.

The process of building software involves planning, testing, debugging, and iterating. The nature of coding involves checking things, piece by piece, and making small improvements until the product matches the vision. It’s okay if coders don’t get things right on the first attempt. Even stellar software engineers don’t get things right on the first try! Coding creates a safe environment for making mistakes and trying again.

Coding also allows students to stretch their imagination and build things that they use every day. Instead of just playing someone else’s video game, what if they could build a game of their own? Coding opens the doors to endless possibilities.

Reason 2: Learning to code gives kids the skills they need to bring their ideas to life

Coding isn’t about rote memorization or simple right or wrong answers. It’s about problem-solving. The beautiful thing about learning to problem solve is, once you learn it, you’re able to apply it across any discipline, from engineering to building a business.

Obviously students who learn computer science are able to build amazing video games, apps, and websites. But many students report that learning computer science has boosted their performance in their other subjects, as well. Computer science has clear ties to math, and has interdisciplinary connections to topics ranging from music to biology to language arts.

Learning computer science helps develop computational thinking. Students learn how to break down problems into manageable parts, observe patterns in data, identify how these patterns are generated, and develop the step-by-step instructions for solving those problems.

Reason 3: Learning to code prepares kids for the economy of the future

According to WIRED magazine, by 2020 there will be 1 million more computer science-related jobs than graduating students qualified to fill them. Computer science is becoming a fundamental part of many cross-disciplinary careers, including those in medicine, art, engineering, business, and law.

Many of the most innovative and interesting new companies are tackling traditional careers with new solutions using software. Software products have revolutionized industries, from travel (Kayak, AirBnB and Uber) to law (Rocket Lawyer and LegalZoom). Computing is becoming a cornerstone of products and services around the world, and getting a head start will give your child an added advantage.

Many leading CEOs and founders have built amazing companies after studying computer science. Just take a look at the founders of Google, Facebook, and Netflix!

Career Paths

Although computer science is a rigorous and scientific subject, it is also creative and collaborative. Though many computer scientists simply hold the title of Software Engineer or Software Developer, their scope of work is very interesting. Here is a look at some of the work that they do:

  • At Facebook, engineers built the first artificial intelligence that can beat professional poker players at 6-player poker.
  • At Microsoft, computer programmers built Seeing AI, an app that helps blind people read printed text from their smartphones.

Computer scientists also work as data scientists, who clean, analyze, and visualize large datasets. With more and more of our world being encoded as data in a server, this is a very important job. For example, the IRS uncovered $10 billion worth of tax fraud using advanced data analytics and detection algorithms. Programmers also work as video game developers. They specialize in building fun interactive games that reach millions of people around the world, from Fortnite to Minecraft.

All of these career paths and projects require cross-functional collaboration among industry professionals that have a background in programming, even if they hold different titles. Some of these people may be software engineers, data scientists, or video game designers, while others could be systems analysts, hardware engineers, or database administrators. The sky is the limit!

How can you get your kids started on any of these paths? By empowering them to code! Juni can help your kids get set up for a successful career in computer science and beyond. Our founders both worked at Google and developed Juni’s curriculum with real-world applications and careers in mind.

Coding for Kids is Important

Coding for kids is growing in popularity, as more and more families recognize coding as an important tool in the future job market. There is no “one-size-fits-all” for selecting a programming course for students. At Juni, our one-on-one classes allow instructors to tailor a course to meet a student’s specific needs. By learning how to code, your kids will not only pick up a new skill that is both fun and academic, but also gain confidence and learn important life skills that will serve them well in whatever career they choose.

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Top 10 technology trends to watch in the COVID-19 pandemic

  • The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated 10 key technology trends, including digital payments, telehealth and robotics.
  • These technologies can help reduce the spread of the coronavirus while helping businesses stay open.
  • Technology can help make society more resilient in the face of pandemic and other threats.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, technologies are playing a crucial role in keeping our society functional in a time of lockdowns and quarantines. And these technologies may have a long-lasting impact beyond COVID-19.

Here are 10 technology trends that can help build a resilient society, as well as considerations about their effects on how we do business, how we trade, how we work, how we produce goods, how we learn, how we seek medical services and how we entertain ourselves.

1. Online Shopping and Robot Deliveries

In late 2002, the SARS outbreak led to a tremendous growth of both business-to-business and business-to-consumer online marketplace platforms in China.

Similarly, COVID-19 has transformed online shopping from a nice-to-have to a must-have around the world. Some bars in Beijing have even continued to offer happy hours through online orders and delivery.

Online shopping needs to be supported by a robust logistics system. In-person delivery is not virus-proof. Many delivery companies and restaurants in the US and China are launching contactless delivery services where goods are picked up and dropped off at a designated location instead of from or into the hands of a person. Chinese e-commerce giants are also ramping up their development of robot deliveries. However, before robot delivery services become prevalent, delivery companies need to establish clear protocols to safeguard the sanitary condition of delivered goods.

Robots can deliver food and goods without any human contact.Image: REUTERS/David Estrada

2. Digital and Contactless Payments

Cash might carry the virus, so central banks in China, US and South Korea have implemented various measures to ensure banknotes are clean before they go into circulation. Now, contactless digital payments, either in the form of cards or e-wallets, are the recommended payment method to avoid the spread of COVID-19. Digital payments enable people to make online purchases and payments of goods, services and even utility payments, as well as to receive stimulus funds faster.

Contactless digital payments can help reduce the spread of COVID-19 and keep business flowing.Image: REUTERS/Phil Noble

However, according to the World Bank, there are more than 1.7 billion unbanked people, who may not have easy access to digital payments. The availability of digital payments also relies on internet availability, devices and a network to convert cash into a digitalized format.

3. Remote Work (WFH)

Many companies have asked employees to work from home. Remote work is enabled by technologies including virtual private networks (VPNs), voice over internet protocols (VoIPs), virtual meetings, cloud technology, work collaboration tools and even facial recognition technologies that enable a person to appear before a virtual background to preserve the privacy of the home. In addition to preventing the spread of viruses, remote work also saves commute time and provides more flexibility.

Will COVID-19 make working from home the norm?Image: REUTERS/Adnan Abidi

Yet remote work also imposes challenges to employers and employees. Information security, privacy and timely tech support can be big issues, as revealed by recent class actions filed against Zoom. Remote work can also complicate labour law issues, such as those associated with providing a safe work environment and income tax issues. Employees may experience loneliness and lack of work-life balance. If remote work becomes more common after the COVID-19 pandemic, employers may decide to reduce lease costs and hire people from regions with cheaper labour costs.

Laws and regulations must be updated to accommodate remote work – and further psychological studies need to be conducted to understand the effect of remote work on people.

Employees rank collaboration and communication, loneliness and not being able to unplug their top struggles when working from home.Image: Buffer State of Remote Report 2020

Further, not all jobs can be done from home, which creates disparity. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, about 25% of wage and salary workers worked from home at least occasionally from 2017 to 2018. Workers with college educations are at least five times more likely to have jobs that allow them to work from home compared with people with high school diplomas. Some professions, such as medical services and manufacturing, may not have the option at all. Policies with respect to data flows and taxation would need to be adjusted should the volume of cross-border digital services rise significantly.

4. Distance Learning

As of mid-April, 191 countries announced or implemented school or university closures, impacting 1.57 billion students. Many educational institutions started offering courses online to ensure education was not disrupted by quarantine measures. Technologies involved in distant learning are similar to those for remote work and also include virtual reality, augmented reality, 3D printing and artificial-intelligence-enabled robot teachers.

Even kindergarteners are learning from home – but will this trend create wider divides and increased pressure on parents?Image: REUTERS/Joy Malone

Concerns about distance learning include the possibility the technologies could create a wider divide in terms of digital readiness and income level. Distance learning could also create economic pressure on parents – more often women – who need to stay home to watch their children and may face decreased productivity at work.

5. Telehealth

Telehealth can be an effective way to contain the spread of COVID-19 while still providing essential primary care. Wearable personal IoT devices can track vital signs. Chatbots can make initial diagnoses based on symptoms identified by patients.

Telehealth utilization has grown during the COVID-19 pandemic.Image: eClinicalWorks’ healow

However, in countries where medical costs are high, it’s important to ensure telehealth will be covered by insurance. Telehealth also requires a certain level of tech literacy to operate, as well as a good internet connection. And as medical services are one of the most heavily regulated businesses, doctors typically can only provide medical care to patients who live in the same jurisdiction. Regulations, at the time they were written, may not have envisioned a world where telehealth would be available.

6. Online Entertainment

Although quarantine measures have reduced in-person interactions significantly, human creativity has brought the party online. Cloud raves and online streaming of concerts have gain traction around the world. Chinese film production companies also released films onlineMuseums and international heritage sites offer virtual tours. There has also been a surge of online gaming traffic since the outbreak.

Even dance instructors are taking their lessons online during the pandemic.Image: REUTERS/Mario Anzuoni

7. Supply Chain 4.0

The COVID-19 pandemic has created disruptions to the global supply chain. With distancing and quarantine orders, some factories are completely shut down. While demand for food and personal protective equipment soar, some countries have implemented different levels of export bans on those items. Heavy reliance on paper-based records, a lack of visibility on data and lack of diversity and flexibility have made existing supply chain system vulnerable to any pandemic.

Core technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as Big Data, cloud computing, Internet-of-Things (“IoT”) and blockchain are building a more resilient supply chain management system for the future by enhancing the accuracy of data and encouraging data sharing.

8. 3D Printing

3D printing technology has been deployed to mitigate shocks to the supply chain and export bans on personal protective equipment. 3D printing offers flexibility in production: the same printer can produce different products based on different design files and materials, and simple parts can be made onsite quickly without requiring a lengthy procurement process and a long wait for the shipment to arrive.

Snorkels were converted into respirators thanks to 3D printing technology.Image: REUTERS/Ramzi Boudina

However, massive production using 3D printing faces a few obstacles. First, there may be intellectual property issues involved in producing parts that are protected by patent. Second, production of certain goods, such as surgical masks, is subject to regulatory approvals, which can take a long time to obtain. Other unsolved issues include how design files should be protected under patent regimes, the place of origin and impact on trade volumes and product liability associated with 3D printed products.

9. Robotics and Drones

COVID-19 makes the world realize how heavily we rely on human interactions to make things work. Labor intensive businesses, such as retail, food, manufacturing and logistics are the worst hit.

COVID-19 provided a strong push to rollout the usage of robots and research on robotics. In recent weeks, robots have been used to disinfect areas and to deliver food to those in quarantine. Drones have walked dogs and delivered items.

A robot helps doctors treat COVID-19 patients in hard-hit Italy.Image: REUTERS/Flavio Lo Scalzo

While there are some reports that predict many manufacturing jobs will be replaced by robots in the future, at the same time, new jobs will be created in the process. Policies must be in place to provide sufficient training and social welfare to the labour force to embrace the change.

10. 5G and Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

All the aforementioned technology trends rely on a stable, high-speed and affordable internet. While 5G has demonstrated its importance in remote monitoring and healthcare consultation, the rollout of 5G is delayed in Europe at the time when the technology may be needed the most. The adoption of 5G will increase the cost of compatible devices and the cost of data plans. Addressing these issues to ensure inclusive access to internet will continue to be a challenge as the 5G network expands globally.

COVID-19 shows that as the 5G network expands globally, we need to ensure inclusive access.Image: REUTERS/Toby Melville

The importance of digital readiness

COVID-19 has demonstrated the importance of digital readiness, which allows business and life to continue as usual – as much as possible – during pandemics. Building the necessary infrastructure to support a digitized world and stay current in the latest technology will be essential for any business or country to remain competitive in a post-COVID-19 world, as well as take a human-centred and inclusive approach to technology governance.

As the BBC points out, an estimated 200 million people will lose their jobs due to COVID-19. And the financial burden often falls on the most vulnerable in society. Digitization and pandemics have accelerated changes to jobs available to humans. How to mitigate the impact on the larger workforce and the most vulnerable is the issue across all industries and countries that deserves not only attention but also a timely and human-centred solution.

How to Install Appium on Mac OS in 3 Simple Steps

Automation testing is one of the essential tasks in Software testing. It allows automation testers to create a robust framework with an automation script, which can be run during functional or regression testing to save time as well as cost. There are various testing tools available for mobile app automation, but Appium is most widely used for test automation.

Here, we will learn how to install Appium on Mac OS in easy steps:

Setting up Mac OS for automation testing is a little difficult task if you are a new to Mac-based system. But if you are familiar with commands on the terminal, then it will be easy to complete the setup.

Install Java JDK latest version

First, download Java JDK from below path and install it (if you are using the same system for both automation and performance testing using JMeter then use JDK 8 or higher version of JDK, as they have more compatibilities).

Set Java Home Path using a terminal

Type below command on terminal:

open -e .bash_profile

It will open the bash profile in edit mode. Now you can edit Java_home, Android _home (for Android app automation, you need to install Android Studio from this link before Android home setup) with below commands:

Copy these commands and set your own username and JDK version and paste on bash profile:

export JAVA_HOME=/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_192.jdk/Contents/Home
export ANDROID_HOME=/Users/<username>/Library/Android/sdk
export PATH=$/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_192.jdk/Contents/Home/
export PATH=”/Users/ <username> /Library/Android/sdk/platform-tools”:$PATH

then save from File > Save and close the bash profile text editor.

Now, your Java and Android home environment variable has been set.

How to Install Appium on Mac OS in 3 Simple Steps

Step 1: Install all the pre-requisites for Appium

  1. Install the latest Xcode Desktop version.
  2. Install Xcode command line (use Command: Xcode-select –install)
  3. Install Homebrew with below command:

/usr/bin/ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL”

  1. brew install npm
  2. npm install carthage 
  3. npm install -g appium
  4. npm install appium-doctor -g
  5. Sudo gem install xcpretty
  6. brew install libimobiledevice –HEAD
  7. npm install -g ios-deploy

Step 2: Download Appium Desktop and install it

Now, download the latest Appium desktop version from the below link and install it.

And, here download Appium-mac-1.15.1.dmg and install.

Step 3: Setting up WebdriverAgent in XCode

This is a very important setup and needs to be done very carefully, otherwise, you will not be able to launch the Appium app.

(i) Open the terminal and go to WebDriverAgent folder within the Appium installation directory. It will be found at the below place:

Right click on Appium desktop > Contents /Resources/app/node_modules/Appium/node_modules/appium-xcuitest-driver/ WebDriverAgent

Now, run below two commands:

1) mkdir -p Resources/WebDriverAgent.bundle
2) ./Scripts/ -d

(ii) Connect your iOS device with the system and open WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj in Xcode. For both the WebDriverAgentLib and WebDriverAgentRunner targets, select “Automatically manage signing” checkbox in the “General” tab, and then select your Development Team. This should also auto select Signing Certificate.

You need to provide Apple developer account credentials to select the team.

Xcode maybe fail to create a provisioning profile for the WebDriverAgentRunner, this needs manual change to the bundle id for the target. Go into the “Build Settings” tab, and change the “Product Bundle Identifier” from com.facebook.WebDriverAgentRunner to something unique that Xcode will accept: like – com.facebooksss.WebDriverAgentRunner.

Similarly, setup WebDriverAgentLib and Integration App in Xcode. Then run (build) integration app. To run the Integration App, Apple id is required, and it should be trusted on a real iPhone device from:

Settings > General > Device Management.

Here click on the Apple id to trust it.

Now close Xcode (end tasks pop up appears), and quit Xcode then run below test command with udid within WebDriverAgent destination on terminal:

xcodebuild -project WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj -scheme WebDriverAgentRunner -destination ‘id=<udid>’ test

If everything is properly set, then you will get terminal like this after running above command:

Test Suite ‘All tests’ started at 2019-10-23 15:49:12.585
Test Suite ‘WebDriverAgentRunner.xctest’ started at 2019-10-23 15:49:12.586
Test Suite ‘UITestingUITests’ started at 2019-10-23 15:49:12.587
Test Case ‘-[UITestingUITests testRunner]’ started.
t = 0.00s Start Test at 2019-10-23 15:49:12.588
t = 0.00s Set Up

Get <udid> by running $ios-deploy -c (before running this command, make sure iPhone is attached with USB and USB debugging is ON)

Launch Appium on Mac OS X

Now, open the Appium app from ‘Application’ and start the Appium Server.

After providing the desired capabilities in Appium Inspector, you can start the session. You can save this desired capability for next time for quick access.

By using the above steps, Click on ‘Start Session’ and this will start to install the app under test on the device and UI will be displayed in Appium Inspector, here you can find the locators and start writing automation test script.

Top Cybersecurity Trends

As we are already in 2020, it’s obvious to think about what the future has in store for us. From a cybersecurity viewpoint, there are a lot of concerns to be answered. 

How cybersecurity will behave this year and what risks will come to the surface? 

Will attackers capitalize on new tools like AI and biometrics or will they focus on utilizing traditional systems in new ways? What will shape cybersecurity in 2020 and beyond? 

By reviewing the cybersecurity happenings over the past couple of years, it is somehow possible to predict the things in cyber scenarios over the next 12 months. 

From cybersecurity staff shortages to the AI’s role in cybersecurity, let’s have a quick look at key cybersecurity trends that are likely to define the digital landscape in 2020. 

The Cybersecurity Talents Gap:

The tech industry is going through cybersecurity talent crises, even though security teams have to face more risks than ever. 

Various studies have found that the shortage of skilled cybersecurity workforce is expected to hit 3.4 million unfilled positions by 2021, up from the current level of 2.93 million, with 500,000 of those vacancies in North America. This can worsen the problem, leading to possible data incidents not being investigated. Consequently, there will be a greater dependence on AI tools that can help organizations with fewer humans. 

Automated security tools such as digital threat management solutions are increasingly becoming important to safeguarding the data. Modern products can enable even a small team to protect their websites and web apps, ensuring a technological solution to persistent cybersecurity talent concerns. 

Starting of the New Cyber Cold War:

In 2017, American intelligence agencies confirmed the Russian government’s involvement in a campaign of hacking, fake news, data leaks to affect the American political process to benefit Donald Trump. 

This is how the cyber-game is played among powerful nations. And this has led to a new kind of war which is termed as a cyber-cold war. 

Cyber-attacks in smaller countries are reportedly sponsored by larger nations to establish their spheres of influence. 

Moreover, critical infrastructure continues to be on the radar of cyber-attacks, as seen in attacks on South African and US utility companies. Countries are required to ponder over their cyber defenses around their critical infrastructure.

Hackers to Exploit Misconfigurations:

Former Amazon Web Services employee Paige Thompson was found guilty of accessing the personal information of 106 million Capital One credit card applicants and clients as well as stealing information from over 30 other enterprises. Thompson was also accused of stealing multiple TB of data from a variety of companies and educational institutions. 

The investigators found that Thompson leveraged a firewall misconfiguration to access data in Capital One’s AWS storage, with a GitHub file containing code for some commands as well as information of over 700 folders of data. Those commands helped him get access to data stored in the folders over there. 

The point is here that human errors in the configuration process can provide an easy entry to the cyber-criminals. Therefore, hackers are looking to make the most of this security vulnerability. 

The Eminent Role of AI in Cybersecurity:

In 2016, AI was used to propagate fake news in the US elections. Special teams were used in a political campaign to create and spread fake stories to weaken the opponents. As we are gearing up for the 2020 elections, the use of AI is likely to take place once again. 

As AI continues to be a major tool for cyber-crime, it will also be utilized to speed up security responses. Most security solutions are based on an algorithm based on human intellect, but updating this against the sophisticated risks and across new technologies and devices is challenging to do manually. 

AI can be useful in threat detection and immediate security responses, helping to prevent attacks before they can do big damage. But it can’t be denied that cybercriminals are also leveraging the same technology to help them identify networks for vulnerabilities and create malware. 

Cloud Security to Remain a Top Concern:

Cloud technology has been gaining momentum among all businesses over the years. After all, it ensures flexibility, collaboration, sharing and accessing. Simply put, you can share and access data from any part of the world, especially if you are on the go. 

However, cloud technology is not immune to threats like data loss, leakage, privacy violation, and confidentiality. These threats will continue to plague cloud computing in 2020 too. No wonder the cloud security market is expected to hit $8.9 billion by 2020

The cloud threats are mainly caused by poor management by the clients, rather than the service provider. For example, you require a password to access a basic cloud service that is shared with you or created by you. In case of using a weaker password, you are making your cloud account vulnerable to cybercrimes. Keep in mind that detecting such flaws in your cloud usage is not a big deal for today’s sophisticated cybercriminals. Besides, sensitive information should be placed in a private cloud that is safer than a public cloud. 

State-Sponsored Cyber-attacks will Rock the World:

Advanced cyber-attacks sponsored by nation-state actors will have a profound impact. Cybercriminals who are unofficially backed by the state can unleash DDoS attacks, create high-profile data incidents, steal secrets and data, and silence some voices. As political tensions are increasing, these things are likely to go up—and managing security in such a scenario will require equally sophisticated solutions to detect and prevent vulnerabilities. 

Bottom Line:

Cyber incidents are on the rise. They will be even more malicious this year as hackers are looking for new ways to discover vulnerabilities. That’s why cybersecurity should be the topmost priority for organizations. Pondering over the new risks will help you better prepare. What do you think? Let me know by commenting below.

Real-Time Information Processing in the Age of IoT

By now, everyone ought to know what the Internet-of-Things (IoT) is and what it entails. IoT Analytics noted in 2018 that the number of connected devices in the world crossed seven billion and that the market was accelerating in its adoption []. However, having a connected device and being unable to garner information from that device’s data is counterintuitive. The age of IoT is upon us, and with it comes the need to understand how to tap into streaming data and make the most of it.

How Did We Get Here?

There is a trend in electronics to aim for smaller devices with lower power consumption while keeping the functionality of the item intact. Sensors were a part of commercial business for a long time, but they weren’t connected to each other. The sensor knew its data but was unaware of the world around it. Since 2012, two significant advancements have shifted the focus of sensors away from just knowing its own data and into sharing that data to other devices:

  • Communications Improved: Wireless network standards and connectivity rose to prominence. Improvements in communication technology have seen wireless networking change standards. Action Tec notes that today’s wireless routers on the 802.11ac standard are forty times faster than the first wireless routers to hit the market in 1999.
  • Sensors Got Better: manufacturing capabilities and technology made it possible to shrink sensors down to a microscopic size while retaining their functionality. The reduced size allowed them to find a home in unique places like shipping containers or clothing without having to worry about if they would get broken or damaged in transit.

The IoT still has a long way to go. However, with the promise of even more stable and secure network communication with the announcement of 5G, there’s a real possibility that more companies will adopt the IoT as a significant part of their data gathering and analytics.

Understanding Big Data in IoT Terms

When looking at the IoT, there’s something that might not immediately be evident. Considering a single IoT device in isolation can be misleading. In reality, a company’s IoT implementation might have hundreds, even thousands of embedded IoT devices, all communicating with each other and the central data store at the same time. The resulting data can be massive, and the industry has coined the term “Big Data” to refer to it. Many companies that have leveraged Big Data as a part of their IoT initiative still find it a hassle to process this data to achieve timely insights. Luckily, there’s another methodology for handling the massive amounts of incoming data from IoT deployments.

Introducing Streaming Data Processing

In May of 2019, Lightbend reported that IoT experienced a threefold increase in real-time processing compared to 2017. Streaming processing uniquely sees data differently from traditional methods. Traditionally, data processing is done on data sets by loading them into memory and doing operations on them to garner results. Streaming data isn’t stored, but as the information is collected and sent to the centralized server, it is processed in real-time, offering faster insights and a quicker rate of consumption of data.

Streaming analytics is how businesses take this incoming data stream and turn it into actionable results. Companies are beginning to realize the benefits of having data streams that can offer them in-depth knowledge about whatever their IoT devices are connected to. The Big Data approach is still valid, and companies that have invested a lot of time and effort into their Big Data infrastructure don’t need to replace it. Streaming analytics is just a complement to the existing methodology of data analysis.

How Does Streaming Analytics Work?

Appreciating streaming analytics requires breaking it down into its component parts to see precisely how this methodology achieves its goals. The basis of streaming analytics comes from a technology known as Event Stream Processing (ESP). ESP is a dedicated processing service that ingests streaming data as it appears before it goes into storage. Each IoT device would transmit their data at their own pace to the ESP system. The ESP would then take that data and run continuous queries on it in real-time. The results are then passed to a subscriber service, which distributes the results in a human-readable form or outputs a flag to sensors to update users.

How Can a Business benefit from Streaming Analytics?

There are evident benefits for implementing analytics that can offer real-time solutions to problems. Among these include:

  • Business Process Analysis: IoT devices are useful in keeping track of production quality and shipping. By utilizing real-time analytics, a business could determine methods of improving its process efficiency, and making its shipping system more customer-centric.
  • Dealing With Preventable Losses: IoT devices have already made their way into supply chains for several manufacturers. With real-time data updates, these companies can track the movement of stock and refine how they deliver products to different locations. Several inventory management systems already offer interfacing with IoT devices to keep a minimum available stock.
  • Competitive Advantage: Technology, if utilized correctly, can offer a competitive edge to a business. IoT data coming into a business can be used alongside streaming analytics to give insight into current trends as they happen. Businesses can pivot to deal with increased demand much faster than they do with batch-processed data, potentially giving them a leg-up on their direct competition.
  • Visualization of Data: Most executives within a business don’t see data the same way that data scientists do. Bridging that gap is essential to communicating those insights to people who can influence the company’s policies. Real-time processing enables executives to get access to insights at a much more rapid pace than collective or batch processing means. The more efficient production of these insights allows the company to respond to upcoming threats of opportunities that much faster.

The Future of Business Data Processing

Business data is dynamic, and because of this property, it sees companies changing and adapting their business processing model to meet new challenges within the space. Streaming analytics meshes well with the idea of IoT, but it isn’t the only thing for which companies can use streaming data. Sources of data might be things like social media updates or real-time sales data from the market. The potential for the technology is immense. If businesses want to benefit from the use of streaming analytics fully, they need to figure out in which data collection channel the methodology would perform the best.

Python Venture Thoughts for 2021 – Work on constant tasks to start your profession

In this article, we’ll explore Python venture thoughts from fledglings to cutting edge levels with the goal that you can achieve without much of a stretch to learn Python by for all intents and purposes actualizing your insight.

Python is the most utilized programming language on earth. Picking up Python information will be your best interest in 2021. In this way, on the off chance that you need to accomplish skills in Python than it is urgent to deal with some ongoing Python venture.

Only technical information or Knowledge of anything is of no utilization until or unless one switch to an ongoing project. In this article, We is giving you Python venture thoughts from fledglings to cutting edge levels with the goal that you can achieve without much of a stretch learn Arcgis by for all intents and purposes actualizing your insight.

Venture-based learning is the most significant thing to improve your insight. That is the reason is giving Python instructional exercises and Python ventures thoughts for novices, intermediates, just as, for specialists. Along these lines, you can likewise step up your programming abilities.

According to Stackoverflow!

“Python is the most preferred language which means that the majority of developers use python.”

We will talk about 200+ Python venture thoughts in our up and coming articles. They arranged as:

  • Python Venture Thoughts
  • Python Django (Web Improvement) Venture Thoughts
  • Python Game Development Venture Thoughts
  • Python Machine learning Venture Thoughts
  • Python AI Venture Thoughts
  • Python Data Science Venture Thoughts
  • Python Deep Learning Venture Thoughts
  • Python Computer Vision Venture Thoughts
  • Python Internet Of Things Venture Thoughts

Python Venture Thoughts – Basic & Essential

1. Number Speculating

Python Venture Thought – Make a program that arbitrarily picks a number to supposition. Afterward, the client will have a couple of opportunities to figure the number effectively. In each off-base endeavor, the PC will give an insight that the number is more noteworthy or littler than the one you have speculated.

2. Dice Rolling Simulator in Python

Python Venture Thought – The Dice Rolling Simulator system will emulate the experience of rolling dice. It will produce a random number until the client can play over and over to get a number from the shakers until the client chooses to stop the program.

3. Email Slicer

Python Venture Thought – The email slicer is a convenient program to get the username and area name from an email address. You can redo and make an impression on the client with this data.

4. Binary Search Algorithm

Python Venture Thought – The binary search algorithm is an efficient method to search for a component in a very long listing. The thought is to actualize the count that scans for an element in the list.

5. Notifier Application for Desktop

Python Venture Thought – A Desktop notifier application runs on your framework, and it will be utilized to send you warnings after each particular interim of time. You can use libraries like notify2, demands, and so on to manufacture this application.

6. Python Story Generator

Python Venture Thought – The venture will haphazardly make stories with a couple of customizations. You can request that clients input a couple of words like name, activity. So on and afterward, it will alter the narratives utilizing your words.

7. Youtube Recordings Downloader

Python Venture Thought – Another intriguing Venture is to cause a pleasant interface through which you can download youtube recordings in various configurations and video quality.

8. Python Site Blocker

Python Venture Thought – Assemble an application that can be utilized to obstruct specific sites from opening. It is an incredibly supportive program for understudies who need to concentrate on examines and don’t need some other interruptions like online life.

Python Venture Thoughts – Intermediate & InDemand

1. Python Calculator

Python Venture Thought – Construct a graphical UI mini-computer utilizing a library like Tkinter in which we fabricate to perform various activities and show results on the screen. You can additionally include functionalities for logical computations.

2. Clock Countdown and Timer Countdown clock and clock python venture

Python Venture Thought – You can fabricate a work area utilization of a commencement clock in which the client can set a timer. Afterward, when the time is finished, the application will tell the client that the time has ended. It’s a utility application for everyday life assignments.

3. Arbitrary Secret phrase Generator in Python

Python Venture Thought – Making a trustworthy secret phrase is a dreary errand. We can assemble an application to create robust passwords haphazardly that contain letters in order, characters, and digits. The client can likewise duplicate the secret phrase with the goal that they can legitimately glue it while making the site.

4. Arbitrary Wikipedia Article

Python Venture Thought – The venture is utilized to get an irregular article from Wikipedia. Afterward, we inquire as to whether he needs to peruse the article or not. On the off chance that the appropriate response is valid, at that point, we show the article else we get another arbitrary article.

5. Reddit Bot

Python Venture Thought – The Reddit is an incredible stage, and we can program a bot to screen subreddits. They can be robotized to spare a ton within recent memory, and we can give valuable data to the Redditors.

6. Python Order Line Application

Python Venture Thought – Python is incredible for building order line applications. You can manufacture a decent CLI interface through which you can send email to others. It will approach the client for qualifications and the information it needs to send. Afterward, we can send the info utilizing an order line.

7. Instagram Bot in Python

Python Venture Thought – The Instagram bot venture is made to mechanize a portion of the essential assignments like consequently loving, remarking, or following individuals. The recurrence must be low since sending unreasonable solicitations to Instagram servers may get you deactivated.

8. Steganography in Python

Python Venture Thought – Steganography is the craft of concealing a message into another structure with the end goal that nobody can associate the presence with the shrouded message. For instance, a message is covered up inside a picture or a video. The Venture will be valuable to shroud messages inside the photographs.

Python Venture Thoughts – Advanced & Futuristic 

1.Typing Speed Test in python

Python Venture Thought – The speed composing test is a task through which you can test your composing speed. You need to make a graphical UI with a GUI library like Tkinter. The client needs to type an irregular sentence. When the client finishes the composing, we show the composting rate, precision, and words every moment.

2. Content Aggregator

Python Venture Thought – There are heaps of data and articles on the web. Discovering great content is difficult, so a content aggregator naturally looked through the well-known sites, searches for meaningful content, and makes a rundown for you to peruse the content. The client can choose which content they need to look or not.

3. Mass Record Rename / Picture Resize Application

Python Venture Thought – AI Ventures incorporate preprocessing of the information. We will need to resize and rename images in bulk, so a program that can take care of these tasks will be quite helpful for machine learning practitioners.

4. Python File Explorer

Python Venture Thought – Create a file explorer and manager app through which you can investigate and learn more about the files on your system, handles, search, and copy-paste them to various places. This task will utilize a great deal of information on different ideas of Python for GIS programming language.

5. Plagiarism Checker in Python

Python Venture Thought – The thought behind this venture is to manufacture a GUI application that you can use to check for literary theft. To assemble this task, you have to utilize a characteristic language handling library alongside the Google search Programming interface that will bring top articles to you.

6. Web Crawler in Python

Python Venture Thought – A web crawler is a mechanized program content that peruses the internet, and it can look and store the substance of the website page. This procedure is called web creeping. The web crawlers like Google go through this procedure to discover to date data. Make a point to utilize the multithreading idea.

7. Music Player in Python

Python Venture Thought – Everybody appreciates tuning in to great music. You can have some good times while learning by building a music player application. The music player can likewise scan for the documents in catalogs and creating an intuitive interface would be a problematic errand that is best for cutting edge software engineers.

8. Value Examination Expansion

Python Venture Thought – This is a stunning task where you can analyze the costs of an item from different web sources. Much the same as on the Trivago site, we can look at the lodging costs. Likewise, we can think about the costs of an item on sites like Amazon, Snapdeal, Flipkart, and so forth and show the best offers.

9. Instagram Photograph Downloader

Python Venture Thought – The Instagram photograph downloader venture is utilized to download all the Instagram pictures of your companions. It will use your qualifications to get to your record and afterward search your companions to download their photographs.

Final thoughts

In this article, we have talked about Python venture thoughts covering all the three phases of developers. From the start, we have spoken about fundamental Venture thoughts for fledglings, including number speculating, dice moving test system, and so on. At that point, we have examined some all the more pleasant venture thoughts for intermediates, including a random secret word generator, Instagram bot, and so forth. At last, we have secured some propelled ventures for specialists, for example, content aggregators, speed composing tests, and so on.

Author’s Bio:

Name: – Kapil Sharma
Location: – Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Designation: – Seo Executive

My Self Kapil Sharma serves as a Seo Executive in the leading Institute named which provides ArcGis Training, there I handle all works related to SEO, SMO, SMM, Content Writing and Email Marketing, etc.

word2vec deep learning

Word2Vec — a baby step in Deep Learning but a giant leap towards Natural Language Processing

The traditional approach to NLP involved a lot of domain knowledge of linguistics itself. Understanding terms such as phonemes and morphemes were pretty standard as there are whole linguistic classes dedicated to their study. Let’s look at how traditional NLP would try to understand the following word.

Let’s say our goal is to gather some information about this word (characterize its sentiment, find its definition, etc). Using our domain knowledge of language, we can break up this word into 3 parts.

What RPA means?

Robotic process automation (RPA) is the use of software with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning capabilities to handle high-volume, repeatable tasks that previously required humans to perform. These tasks can include queries, calculations and maintenance of records and transactions.


Heroku vs. AWS: What to choose in 2021?

Do more with less.

Which PaaS Hosting to Choose?

In the process of elaborating a web project be it a pure API or a thoroughgoing web app, a product manager eventually comes to the point of choosing a hosting service.

Once the tech stack (Python vs. Ruby vs. Node.js vs. anything else) is defined, the software product needs a platform to be deployed and become available to the web world. Fortunately, the present day does not fall short of hosting providers, and everyone can pick the most applicable solution based on particular requirements.

At the same time, the abundance of digital server options is often a large stumbling block many startups can trip on. The first question that arises is what type of web hosting is needed. In this article, we decided to skip such shallow options as shared hosting and virtual private server, and also excluded the dedicated server availability. Our focus is cloud hosting which can serve as a proper project foundation and a tool for deploying, monitoring, and scaling the pipeline. Therefore, it’s worthwhile to review the two most famous representatives of cloud services namely Heroku vs. Amazon.

So let’s talk about popular arguments we can read about everywhere, the same arguments I’m hearing from my colleagues at work 😄

Cloud hosting

Dedicated and shared hosting services are two extremes, from which cloud hosting is distinct. Its principal hallmark is the provision of digital resources on demand. It means you are not limited to capabilities of your physical server. If more processing power, RAM, memory, and so on are necessary, they can be scaled fast manually with a few clicks of a button, and even automatically (e.g., Heroku automatic scaling) depending on traffic spikes.

Meanwhile, the number of services and a type of virtual server architecture generate another classification of the host providing options depending on what users get – function, software, platform or an entire infrastructure. Serverless architecture, where the server is abstracted away, also falls under this category and has good chances of establishing itself in the industry over the next few years, as we suggested in our recent blog post. The options we’re going to review here are considered hosting platforms.

Platform as a service

This a cloud computing model features a platform for speedy and accurate app creation. You are released from tasks related to servers, virtualization, storage, and networking – the provider is responsible for them. Therefore, an app creator doesn’t have any worries related to operating systems, middleware, software updates, etc. PaaS is like a playground for web engineers who can enjoy a bunch of services out-of-the-box. Digital resources including CPU, RAM, and others are manageable via a visual administrative panel. The following short intro to the advantages and disadvantages of PaaS will be a good explanation of why this cloud hosting option has been popular lately.


The following reasons make PaaS attractive to companies regardless of their size:

  • Cost-efficiency (you are charged only for the amount of resources you use)
  • Provides plenty of assistance services
  • Dynamic scaling
  • Rapid testing and implementation of apps
  • Agile deployment
  • Emphasis on app development instead of supplementary tasks (maintain, upgrade, or support infrastructure)
  • Allows easy migration to the hybrid model
  • Integrated web services and databases


These items might cause you to doubt whether this is the option for you:

  • Information is stored off-site, which is not appropriate for certain types of businesses
  • Though the model is cost-efficient, do not expect a low budget solution. A good set of services may be quite pricey.
  • Reaction to security vulnerabilities is not particularly fast. For example, patches for Google Kubernetes clusters take 2-4 weeks to be applied. Some companies may deem this timeline unacceptable.

As a rule, the hosting providers reviewed herein stand out amid other PaaS options. The broad picture would be like Heroku vs. AWS vs. Google App Engine vs. Microsoft Azure, and so on. We took a look at this in our blog post on the best Node.js hosting services. Here we go.

Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Judging from the article’s title, the Heroku platform should have been the opener of our comparison. Nevertheless, we cannot neglect the standing and reputation of AWS. This provider can not boast an unlimited number of products, but they do have around one hundred. You can calculate the actual number on their product page if needed. However, the point is that AWS is holding not only the PaaS niche. The user’s capability to choose solutions for storage, analytics, migration, application integration and others lets us consider this provider as an infrastructure as a service. Meanwhile, the AWS’ opponent within this comparison cannot boast the same set of services. Therefore, it would only be fair to select the same weight class of competitor and reshape our comparison into Elastic Beanstalk vs. Heroku, since the former is the PaaS provided by Amazon. So, in the context of this article, AWS will be represented by Beanstalk.

Elastic Beanstalk

You can find this product in the ‘Compute’ tab on the AWS home page. Officially, Elastic Beanstalk is a product which allows to deploy web apps. It is appropriate for apps built in RoR, Python, Java, PHP, and other tech stacks. The deployment procedure is agile and automatized. The service carries out auto-scaling, capacity provisioning and other essential tasks for you. The infrastructure management can also be automated. Nevertheless, users are in control of resources leveraged to power the app.

Among the companies that chose this AWS product to host their products, you can encounter BMW, Speed 3D, Ebury, etc. Let’s see what features like Elastic Beanstalk pricing or manageability attract and repel users.

Pros & Cons

Easy to deploy an appImproved developer productivityA bunch of automated functionalities including the scaling, configuration, setup, and othersFull control over the resourcesManageable pricing – you manage your costs depending on the resources you leverageEasy integration with other AWS productsMedium learning curveDeployment speed may stretch up to 15 minutes per appLack of transparency (zero information on version upgrades, old app versions archiving, lack of documentation around stack)DevOps skills are required

In addition to this PaaS product, Amazon can boast an IaaS solution called Elastic Compute Cloud or EC2. It involves detailed delving into the configuration of server infrastructure, adding database instances, and other activities related to app deployment. At some point in your activities, you might be want to migrate to it from Beanstalk. It is important to mention that such migration can be done seamlessly, which is great!


In 2007, when this hosting provider just began its activities, Ruby on Rails was the only supported tech stack. After the lapse of over 10 years, Heroku has enhanced its scope and is now available for dealing with the apps built with Node.js, Python, Perl, and others. Meanwhile, it is a pure PaaS product which makes inappropriate to compare Heroku vs. EC2.

It’s a generally known fact that this provider rests on AWS servers. In this regard, do we really need to compare AWS vs. Heroku? We do, because this cloud-based solution differs from the products we mentioned above and has its own quirks to offer. These include over 180 add-ons – tools and services for developing, monitoring, testing, image processing, and cover other operations with your app, an ocean of buttons and buildpacks. The latter is especially useful for automation of the build processes for tech stacks. As for the big names that leverage Heroku, there are Toyota, Facebook, and GitHub.

Traditionally, we need to learn what benefits of Heroku you can experience and why you may dislike this hosting provider.

Pros & Cons

Easy to deploy an appImproved developer productivityFree tier is available (not only the service itself but also a bunch of add-ons are available for free)Auto-scaling is supportedA bunch of supportive toolsEasy setupBeginner and startup-friendlyShort learning curveRather expensive for large and high-traffic appsSlow deployment for larger appsLimited in types of instancesNot applicable for heavy-computing projects

Which is more popular – Heroku or AWS?

Heroku has been in the market four years longer than Elastic Beanstalk and has never lost in terms of popularity to this Amazon PaaS.

Meanwhile, the range of services provided by AWS has been growing in high gear. Its customers have more freedom of choice and flexibility to handle their needs. That resulted in a rapid increase in search interest starting from 2013 until today.

Heroku vs. AWS pricing through the Mailtrap example

Talking about pricing, it’s essential to note that Elastic Beanstalk does not require any additional charge. So, is it no charge? The answer is yes – the service itself is free. Nevertheless, the budget will be spent on the resources required for deploying and hosting your app. These include the EC2 instances that comprise different combinations of CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity, S3 storage, and so on. As a trial version, all new users can opt for a free usage tier to deploy a low-traffic app.

With Heroku, there is no need to gather different services and set up your hosting plan as LEGO. You have to select a Heroku dyno (a lightweight Linux container prepacked with particular resources), database-as-a-service and support to scale resources depending on your app’s requirements. A free tier is also available, but you will be quite limited in resources with this option. Despite its simplicity of use, this cloud service provider is far from being cheap.

We haven’t mentioned any figures here because both services follow a customized approach to pricing. That means you pay for what you use and avoid wasting your money on unnecessary resources. On that account, costs will differ depending on the project. Nevertheless, Heroku is a great solution to start, but Amazon AWS pricing seems cheaper. Is it so in practice?

We decided to show you the probable difference in pricing for one of Railsware’s most famous products – Mailtrap. Our engineers agreed to disclose a bit of information regarding what AWS services are leveraged and how much they cost the company per month. Unfortunately, Heroku services are not as versatile as AWS, and some products like EC2 instances have no equivalent alternatives on the Heroku side. Nevertheless, we tried to find the most relevant options to make the comparison as precise as possible.

Cloud computing

At Mailtrap, we use a set of the on-demand Linux instances including m4.large, c5.xlarge, r4.2xlarge, and others. They differ in memory and CPU characteristics as well as prices. For example, c5.xlarge provides 8GiB of memory and 4 vCPU for $0.17 per hour. As for Heroku, there are only six dyno types with the most powerful one offering 14GB of memory. Therefore, we decided to pick the more or less identical instances and calculate their costs per month.

Cloud computingEC2 On-Demand Linux instances:t3.micro (1GiB) – $0.0104 per hour
$7.48 per montht3.small (2GiB) – $0.0208 per hour
$14.98 per monthc5.2xlarge (16GiB) – $0.34 per hour
$244.8 per month
Dyno:standard-2x (1024MB)
$50.00 per month performance-m (2.5GB)
$250.00 per month performance-l (14GB)
$500.00 per month

The computing cloud costs for Mailtrap per month are almost $2,000 based on eight different AWS instances with the memory characteristics from 4GiB to 122 GiB, the costs for Elastic Load Balancing, and Data Transfer. Even if we chose the largest Heroku dyno, Performance-l, the costs would amount to $4,000 per month! It is important also to mention that Heroku cannot satisfy the need for heavy-computing capacity because the largest dyno is limited to 14GB of RAM.


For the database-related purposes, both hosting providers offer powerful suite of tools – Relational Database Service (RDS) for PostgreSQL and Heroku Postgres correspondingly. We picked two almost equal instances to show you the price difference.

DatabaseRDS for PostgreSQL:
db.r4.xlarge (30.5 GiB) – $0.48 per hour
$345.6 per month
EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) volumes – $0.125 per GB 
$439.35 per month (at the rate of 750GB storage)
Heroku Postgres:
Standard 4 (30 GB RAM, 750 GB storage)
$750.00 per month

In-memory data store

Both providers offer managed solutions to seamlessly deploy, run, and scale in-memory data stores. Everything is simple to compare. We took an ElastiCache instance used at Mailtrap and set it against the most relevant solution by Heroku Redis. Here is what we’ve got.

In-memory storage (i.e., cache)ElastiCache:
cache.r4.large (12.3 GiB) – $0.228 per hour
$164.16 per month
Heroku Redis:
Premium-9 (10GB)
$1,450.00 per month

In addition to RDS instance, you will have to choose an Elastic Block Store (EBS) option, which refers to HDD or SSD volume. At Mailtrap, the EBS costs are almost $600 per month.

Main storage

As the main storage for files, backups, etc., Heroku has nothing to offer, and they recommend using Amazon S3. You can make the integration between S3 and Heroku seamless thanks to using an add-on like Bucketeer. In this case, the main storage costs will be equal for both PaaS (except for the fact that you’ll have to pay for the chosen add-on on Heroku). At Mailtrap, we use a Standard Storage instance “First 50 TB / Month – $0.023 per GB”, as well as instances “PUT, COPY, POST, or LIST Requests – $0.005 per 1,000” and “GET, SELECT and all other Requests – $0.0004 per 1,000”. All in all, the costs are a bit more than $800 per month.

Data streaming

Though this point has no relation to Mailtrap hosting, we decided to show the options provided by AWS and Heroku in terms of real-time data streaming. Amazon can boast of Kinesis Data Streams (KDS), and Heroku has Apache Kafka. The latter is simple to calculate since you need to choose one of the options available (basic, standard or extended) depending on the required capacity. With KDS, you’ll have to either rack your brains or leverage Simple Monthly Calculator. That’s what we’ve got for 4MB/sec data input.

Data streaming servicesKDS:
4 shard hours – $0.015 per hour
527.04 million PUT Payload Units – $0.014 per 1,000,000 units
$50.58 per month
Apache Kafka:
$175 per month


Heroku offers three support options – Standard, Premium, and Enterprise. The former is free, while the price for the latter two starts from $1,000. As for AWS, there are four support plans – Basic, Developer, Business, and Enterprise. The Basic one is provided to all customers, while the price for the others is calculated according to AWS usage for a particular amount of costs. For example, if you spend $5,000 on Amazon products, the price for support will be $500.

Total Cost

Now, let’s sum up all the expenses and see how much we would have paid if Mailtrap was hosted on Heroku.

Cloud computing
In-memory data store
Main storage

These figures are rough, but they fairly present the idea that less haste with infrastructure management is rather pricey. Heroku gives you more time to focus on app creation but drains purse. AWS offers a variety of options and solutions to manage your hosting infrastructure and definitely saves the budget.

Comparison table

Below we compared the most relevant points of the two cloud hosting providers.

PaaSAWS Elastic BeanstalkHeroku
ServersProprietaryAWS servers
Programming language supportRuby
Key featuresAWS Service Integration
Capacity Provisioning
Load Balancing
App Health Dashboard
Automatic update
App metrics
Heroku runtime
Heroku PostgreSQL
Data clips
Heroku Redis
App metrics
Code and data rollback
Smart containers (dynos)
Continuous delivery
Full GitHub Integration
Management & monitoring toolsManagement Console
Command Line Interface (AWS CLI)
Visual Studio
Command Line
Application Metrics
Featured customersBMW, Samsung Business, GeoNetToyota, Thinking Capital, Zenrez

Why use Heroku web hosting

In practice, this hosting provider offers a lot of benefits like a lightning-fast server set up (using the command line, you can make it within 10 sec), easy deployment with Git Push, a plethora of add-ons to optimize the work, and versatile auxiliary tools like Redis and Docker. A free tier is also a good option for those who want to try or experiment with cloud computing. Moreover, since January 2017, auto-scaling has been available for web dynos.

It’s undisputed that Heroku cloud is great for beginners. Moreover, it may be good for low-budget projects due to the lack of DevOps costs needed to set up the infrastructure (and potentially hire someone to do this). However, many startups choose this provider as a launching pad due to its supreme simplicity in operation.

Why choose Amazon Web Services

This solution is more attractive in terms of cost-efficiency. At the same time, it loses out as for usability. Users can enjoy a tremendous amount of features and products for web hosting provided by Amazon. It’s easy to set up and deploy, and definitely provides everything that Heroku does but for less money. However, Elastic Beanstalk is not as easy-to-use as its direct competitor.

Numerous supplementary products like AWS Lightsail, which was described in our blog post dedicated to Ruby on Rails hosting providers, Lambda, EC2, and others let you enhance your app hosting options and control your cloud infrastructure. At the same time, they usually require DevOps skills to use them.

The Verdict

So, which provider is worth your while – Heroku servers that are attractive in terms of usability and beginner-friendliness or AWS products that are cheaper but more intricate in use?

Heroku is the option for:AWS is the option for:
– startups those who prioritize time over money;
– those who prefer dealing with creating an app rather than devoting yourself to infrastructure mundane tasks;
– those whose goal is to deploy and test an MVP;
– products needed to be constantly updated;
– those who do not plan to spend money on hiring DevOps engineers.
– those who have already worked with Amazon web products;
– those who want to avoid numerous tasks related to app deployment;
– those whose goal is to build a flexible infrastructure;
– those who have strong DevOps skills or ready to hire the corresponding professionals;
– projects requiring huge computing power.

What is the Difference: CPLD vs FPGA?

One of the most consistently brought up questions among young engineers and FPGA beginners is whether they should use FPGA or CPLD. These are two different logic devices that have a different set of characteristics that set them apart from one another. So, let us settle this debate once and for all and clear the air: what is the difference between FPGA vs. CPLD?

FPGA Overview

FPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. It is a programmable logic device that harbors a complex architecture that allows them to have a high logic capacity, making them ideal for high gate count designs such as server application, video encoders/decoders. Due to the fact that FPGA consist of large number of gates the internal delays in this chip are sometimes unpredictable.

CPLD Overview

CPLD stands for Complex Programmable Logic Device. It is a programmable logic device that is based on Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory or EEPROM, has a comparatively less complex architecture as compared to FPGA, and is much more suitable in small gate count designs such as glue-logic.

So let’s talk about popular arguments we can read about everywhere, the same arguments I’m hearing from my colleagues at work 😄


FPGA logic chips can be considered to be a number of logic blocks consisting of gate arrays which are connected through programmable interconnects. Such a design allows the engineer to execute complex circuits and develop flexible designs thanks to the great capacity of the chip. On the other hand, CPLD use macrocells and are only able to connect signals to neighboring logic blocks, making them less flexible and less suited to execute complicated applications. This is why they are also used mostly used as glue-logic.

Since CPLD only contains a limited number of logic blocks as opposed to FPGA whose logic block count can reach to up to a 100,000, a large number compared to the maximum 100 block limit of the former, it is generally used for simpler applications and implementations. Their smaller capacity also makes them cheaper as a whole. FPGA logic chips may be cheaper on a gate by gate basis, but tend to become more expensive when considered as a package.

As mentioned before, CPLDs use EEPROMs and hence can be operated as soon as they are powered up. FPGA are RAM based, meaning they have to download the data for configuration from an external memory source and set it up before it can begin to operate, and thereafter the FPGA goes blank after power down. This feature also makes FPGAs volatile as their RAM based configuration data is available and readable by external source, as opposed to the CPLD chips which retain the programmed data internally.

On the other hand, circuit modification is simpler and more convenient with FPGAs as the circuit can be changed even while the device is running through a process called partial reconfiguration, whereas in order to change or modify design functionality, a CPLD device must be powered down and reprogrammed.


For a networking system that transfers massive data from one end to the other end, and FPGA could be used to analyzing the data going through the system, packet by packet and informing the main CPU about various statistics such as: number of packets, number of voice or video packets etc. While in the same system, perhaps in the CPU circuitry an CPLD and act as an interrupt controller or as and GPIO controller.

The following table summarizes the difference between CPLD vs. FPGA.

Why Java Programming is so Popular in 2021?

Any programmer will confirm to you that Java is by far the best programming language to have ever been created. Who can argue against that fact when almost all Fortune 500 companies give it thumbs up?

Java programming is both user-friendly and flexible, making it the obvious go-to programming language for web app developers and program management experts. By flexibility, in this case, we mean that an application developed in its coding system can run consistently on any operating system, regardless of the OS in which it was initially developed. Whether you need a language to help you with numerical computing, mobile computing, or desktop computing, Java has got you covered.

Is Java easy to learn?

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There are many programming languages out there, but Java beats them all in terms of popularity. There definitely must be a reason why it has gained so much popularity in the recent past, without mentioning how well it has shaken off competition for almost two and a half decades now. So, the million-dollar question remains: 

Why Java is the Most Popular Programming Language?

 1.      Its codes are easy to understand and troubleshoot

Part of why Java has grown tremendously over the years is because of being object-oriented. Simply put, an object-oriented coding language makes software design simpler by breaking the execution process down to small, easy-to-process chunks. Complex coding problems that are associated with C and C++, among other languages, are hard to encounter when programming in Java. On top of that, object-oriented languages such as Java provide programmers with greater modularity and an easy to understand pragmatic approach.

2.      JRE makes Java independent

JRE (Java Runtime Environment) is the reason why Java can run consistently across platforms. All a programmer needs to do is install JRE to a computer and all of his Java programs will be good to go, where they were developed at notwithstanding.

On top of running smoothly on computers- Macs, Linux, or even Windows, JRE is also compatible with mobile phones. That is the independence and flexibility that a programmer needs from a coding language in order to grow his/her career, especially if he/she is a newbie.

3.      It is easy to reuse common codes in Java

Everyone hates duplication and overlapping of roles, and so does Java. That is why this coding language developed a feature known as Java objects that allows a programmer to reuse common codes whenever applicable instead of rewriting the same code over and over again. The common attributes between two objects within a class are shared so that the developer can focus entirely on developing the different, uncommon attributes. This form of code inheritance makes coding simple, fast, and inexpensive.

4.      Java API makes Java versatile

Java API provides programmers with thousands of classes and about 50 keywords to work with. It also allows programmers to use coding methods that run to tens of thousands. That makes Java versatile and accommodative to as many coding ideas a programmer could have. That is not all; Java API isn’t too complex for a newbie to master and all one needs to get started is to learn a portion of it. Once you are able to comfortably work with the utility functions of Java, you can learn everything else on the job.

5.      Java allows you to run a program across servers

When coding for a huge organization that uses a network of computers, the greatest challenge is to sync all computers so that a program runs seamlessly on each of them. With Java’s PATH and CLASSPATH, however, you don’t have to worry about the distribution of a program across multiple servers.

6.      Java programming is adaptable, strong, and stable

Because you can run Java both on computers and mobile devices, it’s true to say that the language’s dialect is universally adaptable. On the other hand, you can run Java both on a large and small scale, meaning that its codes are strong and stable. And as we mentioned, there aren’t any limitations with Java; you can even develop translation software using this language. For the best results, however, it is always wise to work closely with a professional translation service provider.

7.      Powerful source code editor

Java’s source code editor is the Integrated Development Environment, which does not only enable programmers to write code faster and easier, but that also comes with an automated, in-built debugger feature.

In conclusion

If you ever need help with Java programming, there are companies that offer java outsourcing services to all types of organizations. Such companies make program and application development affordable. 

Open-source Image Recognition Library

What is the best image recognition app?

  • Google Image Recognition. Google is renowned for creating the best search tools available. …
  • Brandwatch Image Insights. …
  • Amazon Rekognition. …
  • Clarifai. …
  • Google Vision AI. …
  • GumGum. …
  • LogoGrab. …
  • IBM Image Detection.

Is there an app that can find an item from a picture?

Google Goggles: Image-Recognition Mobile AppThe Google Goggles app is an image-recognition mobile app that uses visual search technology to identify objects through a mobile device’s camera. Users can take a photo of a physical object, and Google searches and retrieves information about the image.

Python for Machine Learning: Pandas library View

Pandas Axis Explained

Pandas is a powerful library in a toolbox for every Machine Learning engineer. It provides two main data structures: Series and DataFrame.

Many API calls of these types accept cryptical “axis” parameter. This parameter is poorly described in Pandas’ documentation, though it has a key significance for using the library efficiently. The goal of the article is to fill in this gap and to provide a solid understanding of what the “axis” parameter is and how to use it in various use cases including leading-edge artificial intelligence applications.

Axis in Series

Series is a one-dimensional array of values. Under the hood, it uses NumPy ndarray. That is where the term “axis” came from. NumPy uses it quite frequently because ndarray can have a lot of dimensions.

Series object has only “axis 0” because it has only one dimension.The arrow on the image displays “axis 0” and its direction for the Series object.

Usually, in Python, one-dimensional structures are displayed as a row of values. On the contrary, here we see that Series is displayed as a column of values.

Each cell in Series is accessible via index value along the “axis 0”. For our Series object indexes are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Here is an example of accessing different values:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> srs = pd.Series([‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’, ‘white’, ‘black’])
  3. >>> srs[0]
  4. ‘red’
  5. >>> srs[3]
  6. ‘white’

Axes in DataFrame

DataFrame is a two-dimensional data structure akin to SQL table or Excel spreadsheet. It has columns and rows. Its columns are made of separate Series objects. Let’s see an example:

DataFrame object has two axes: “axis 0” and “axis 1”. “axis 0” represents rows and “axis 1” represents columns. Now it’s clear that Series and DataFrame share the same direction for “axis 0” – it goes along rows direction.

Our DataFrame object has 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 indexes along the “axis 0”, and additionally, it has “axis 1” indexes which are: ‘a’ and ‘b’.

To access an element within DataFrame we need to provide two indexes (one per each axis). Also, instead of bare brackets, we need to use .loc method:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> srs_a = pd.Series([1,3,6,8,9])
  3. >>> srs_b = pd.Series([‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’, ‘white’, ‘black’])
  4. >>> df = pd.DataFrame({‘a’: srs_a, ‘b’: srs_b})
  5. >>> df.loc[2, ‘b’]
  6. ‘blue’
  7. >>> df.loc[3, ‘a’]
  8. 8

Using “axis” parameter in API calls

There are a lot of different API calls for Series and DataFrame objects which accept “axis” parameter. Series object has only one axis, so this parameter always equals for it. Thus, you can omit it, because it does not affect the result:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> srs = pd.Series([1, 3,, 4,])
  3. >>> srs.dropna()
  4. 0 1.0
  5. 1 3.0
  6. 3 4.0
  7. dtype: float64
  8. >>> srs.dropna(axis=0)
  9. 0 1.0
  10. 1 3.0
  11. 3 4.0
  12. dtype: float64

On the contrary, DataFrame has two axes, and “axis” parameter determines along which axis an operation should be performed. For example, .sum can be applied along “axis 0”. That means, .sum operation calculates a sum for each column:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> srs_a = pd.Series([10,30,60,80,90])
  3. >>> srs_b = pd.Series([22, 44, 55, 77, 101])
  4. >>> df = pd.DataFrame({‘a’: srs_a, ‘b’: srs_b})
  5. >>> df
  6. a b
  7. 0 10 22
  8. 1 30 44
  9. 2 60 55
  10. 3 80 77
  11. 4 90 101
  12. >>> df.sum(axis=0)
  13. a 270
  14. b 299
  15. dtype: int64

We see, that having sum with axis=0 smashed all values along the direction of the “axis 0” and left only columns(‘a’ and ‘b’) with appropriate sums.

With axis=1 it produces a sum for each row:

  1. >>> df.sum(axis=1)
  2. 0 32
  3. 1 74
  4. 2 115
  5. 3 157
  6. 4 191
  7. dtype: int64

If you prefer regular names instead of numbers, each axis has a string alias. “axis 0” has two aliases: ‘index’ and ‘rows’. “axis 1” has only one: ‘columns’. You can use these aliases instead of numbers:

  1. >>> df.sum(axis=’index’)
  2. a 270
  3. b 299
  4. dtype: int64
  5. >>> df.sum(axis=’rows’)
  6. a 270
  7. b 299
  8. dtype: int64
  9. >>> df.sum(axis=’columns’)
  10. 0 32
  11. 1 74
  12. 2 115
  13. 3 157
  14. 4 191
  15. dtype: int64

Dropping NaN values

Let’s build a simple DataFrame with NaN values and observe how axis affects .dropna method:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> import numpy as np
  3. >>> df = pd.DataFrame({‘a’: [2, np.nan, 8, 3], ‘b’: [np.nan, 32, 15, 7], ‘c’: [-3, 5, 22, 19]})
  4. >>> df
  5. a b c
  6. 0 2.0 NaN -3
  7. 1 NaN 32.0 5
  8. 2 8.0 15.0 22
  9. 3 3.0 7.0 19
  10. >>> df.dropna(axis=0)
  11. a b c
  12. 2 8.0 15.0 22
  13. 3 3.0 7.0 19

Here .dropna filters out any row(we are moving along “axis 0”) which contains NaN value.

Let’s use “axis 1” direction:

  1. >>> df.dropna(axis=1)
  2. c
  3. 0 -3
  4. 1 5
  5. 2 22
  6. 3 19

Now .dropna collapsed “axis 1” and removed all columns with NaN values. Columns ‘a’ and ‘b’ contained NaN values, thus only ‘c’ column was left.


Concatenation function with axis=0 stacks the first DataFrame over the second:

  1. >>> import pandas as pd
  2. >>> df1 = pd.DataFrame({‘a’: [1,3,6,8,9], ‘b’: [‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’, ‘white’, ‘black’]})
  3. >>> df2 = pd.DataFrame({‘a’: [0,2,4,5,7], ‘b’: [‘jun’, ‘jul’, ‘aug’, ‘sep’, ‘oct’]})
  4. >>> pd.concat([df1, df2], axis=0)
  5. a b
  6. 0 1 red
  7. 1 3 green
  8. 2 6 blue
  9. 3 8 white
  10. 4 9 black
  11. 0 0 jun
  12. 1 2 jul
  13. 2 4 aug
  14. 3 5 sep
  15. 4 7 oct

With axis=1 both DataFrames are put along each other:

  1. >>> pd.concat([df1, df2], axis=1)
  2. a b a b
  3. 0 1 red 0 jun
  4. 1 3 green 2 jul
  5. 2 6 blue 4 aug
  6. 3 8 white 5 sep
  7. 4 9 black 7 oct


Pandas borrowed the “axis” concept from NumPy library. The “axis” parameter does not have any influence on a Series object because it has only one axis. On the contrary, DataFrame API heavily relies on the parameter, because it’s a two-dimensional data structure, and many operations can be performed along different axes producing totally different results.

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What is Node.js used for?

We know JavaScript as a language to write once and run anywhere. It began its ascension with browsers, where JS became a standard language for manipulating web pages. Thereafter, it moved to the server-side and established itself on web servers. That entailed a capability to generate web pages on the server.

However, JavaScript’s first run at the backend was short-lived and has probably vanished from the developer community’s memory. As we go along, we’ll explore numerous types of JS employment, like writing a command line app or a specific search engine. Still, to build a general-purpose application using JS was a challenge. The wind of change blew when Node.js came out.

Node.js is not a JS framework

There are many web frameworks with underlying JavaScript. These include Angular and React, Meteor.js, Vue.js, and others. All of them contribute to the development process by increasing efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Although Node.js allows you to build platform-independent web apps, it is not a JS framework. The official description or title of this tool is a run-time environment which, in turn, means a bigger scope of implementation. On that account, uses of Node.js are not limited to web applications but also include microcontrollers, REST APIs, static file servers, OS wrappers, robots, and even drone programming. Instead of a listless request-reply message exchange pattern, the technology applies a progressive event-driven paradigm, which provides an event-loop ready to react to an event.

How it works

The essence of the technology is a highly customizable server engine that uses non-blocking event-based input/output model. It makes a kind of translation of JS into machine language which provides increased performance and agility. As a result, we get a run-time environment, where JS code moves fast in the server-to-client direction. With Node.js, JavaScript increased its capabilities from just building interactive websites to a broader scope of use cases that we’ll review later.

If you open the hood of Node.js, you’ll discover the realm of the event-loop. Traditional web-serving techniques stipulate a separate thread for each request. Henceforth, random access memory (RAM) experiences a huge load. As for Node.js web development, the non-blocking input/output model needs a single thread to support multiple concurrent requests in the event-loop without clogging RAM. Simply put, when data exists, it is simply transmitted without constant querying. All asynchronous tasks are taken by the event-loop, which ensures a high level of responsiveness and, hence, speed.

Pros & Cons

In our article dedicated to comparing Python vs. Ruby vs. Node.js, we made a short introduction to the advantages/disadvantages of the run-time environment. Well, if you want to know what is Node.js best used for, a detailed review of its strengths and weaknesses is obligatory.

– Full stack JavaScript development
Node.js has paved the way for JS to the server side. Now, companies and startups can build both the backend and frontend of their products with only one scripting language. In terms of development, you cut your time expenses, as well as recruiting efforts, since a team of JS-savvy engineers might be enough to succeed.
– Asynchronous non-blocking input/output
With Node.js, you have no trouble processing hundreds of thousands of simultaneous requests. The data flow experiences no interruption, which, in practice, gives less RAM consumption and faster performance.
– V8 engine
Though Node.js is not a Chevy Corvette, it has a V8 engine as well. However, it is a JS engine developed by Google. V8 converts JS code into machine code that provides extremely fast execution.
– Microservices architecture
In today’s reality, architecture based on microservices is gaining popularity over the monolithic one. For this reason, a variety of well-known companies including Netflix are taking up the practice of splitting an app into smaller services. Besides, the technology offers ample ready-to-use modules, as well as an event-driven I/O model, to implement microservices solutions.
– Rich ecosystem
The availability of ready-to-use tools for building Node applications is a significant booster for development performance. For this reason, you should learn three letters – N, P, and M. They refer to the JS package manager, which amounts to over 700K building blocks so far. NPM allows you to search, install, share, and reuse lines of code.
– Heavy computations incapacity
Node.js is a great solution for building complex projects. However, it is not an option when you need to deal with CPU-intensive tasks. Due to incoming request blockage by heavy computations, there is a significant loss in performance. On that account, it is not a fit for long-running calculations.
– Callback hell
This issue can affect the quality of your JS code and trigger other declines such as development slowdowns and cost increases. Callback hell is a situation caused by execution of multiple asynchronous operations where myriad nested callbacks end up a callback function. Well, starting with the 7th release, you have the async/await feature to mitigate problems with callbacks. Unfortunately, they do not promise to avoid them completely.

What can you do with Node.js

Early on, we made a passing mention of possible Node.js use cases. Now, we can explore this topic in detail. You know that the bulk of the technology’s popularity falls to the backend development. Frontend, as well as full stack usage of the tool, falls behind a bit. According to the latest survey made by Node.js Foundation, web applications are the top use case with the share of 85%. Taking into account all the strengths and weaknesses of this JS run-time environment, we composed a list of the hands-on solutions where you can leverage the technology.

Complex SPAs

A single-page app (SPA) involves the allocation of an entire application on one page, whereas the UX is akin to a desktop application. This type of product is popular for building online text/drawing tools, social networking or mail solutions, and numerous versatile websites. In that case, Node.js app development is a good fit for making SPAs due to its asynchronous data flow on the backend. The event loop “catches” simultaneous client’s requests which provides a smooth data update. In practice, it eliminates the necessity of refreshing the page every time to get new data. Besides, a bunch of SPAs have been created with different JS frameworks/libraries including React, Meteor, Vue.js, Angular, etc. JavaScript is a common language between these tools and Node.js which improves the development process by reusability of structures and approaches both on the frontend and backend.


For those out of step, RTA refers to a real-time app. I bet that most of you employ this type of applications on a daily basis. To name a few, Google Doc/Spreadsheets, as well as Slack, represent this use case. As a rule, collaborative services, project management tools, video/audio conferencing solutions and other RTAs require heavy input/output operations. Again, the asynchronous event-driven nature plus event API and websockets offered by Node.js ensure a seamless server operation (no hangup) and instant data update. Real-time chats are also tightly related to the technology, but they deserve a separate paragraph below.

Chat rooms

This use case is the most typical RTA. Moreover, it is definitely a sweet-spot when we talk about Node.js implementation. If you aim at this type of product, you are likely to set such requirements as high traffic capacity, lightweight, as well as intense data flow. All these can be achieved in full using Node.js combined with some JS framework like Express.js on the backend. The already mentioned websockets play a key role in receiving/forwarding messages within the chat room environment.

Browser Games

Chat rooms are not much-in-demand independently except for their implementation as a component in online games. Node.js game development is another attractive use case. Actually, the combination of the technology with HTML5 and JS tooling (, Express.js, etc.) allows you to construct RT browser games such as Ancient Beast, PaintWar, voxel shooting, Anagrammatix and many others.

Data streaming apps

Another product type where Node.js is used is a streaming app. The technology’s selling point is the ability to process data during the uploading time. Using it, you can transmit particular parts of the content and keep the connection open to download other components when necessary. In that context, Node.js streaming apps deal with not only video and audio data. Other forms are also available for input/output in real time.


Application programming interfaces (APIs) based on representational state transfer (REST) hold a fundamental position in building modern enterprise software architectures. The reason is a wide usage of the HTTP protocol. Besides, REST APIs are in demand in view of a trend towards microservices design patterns. Node.js ecosystem offers Express.js framework to build the lightweight and fast REST APIs. As for the benefits compared to other technologies – simple exposure of JSON objects with a REST API and no worries about conversion between JSON and MongoDB (with other databases that do not store data using JSON like PostgreSQL, transformation is necessary).

Server-side web apps

Express.js can complement Node.js for building web apps on the server side. Of course, it is worth mentioning that no CPU-heavy operations should be expected. Besides, a server-side web app is not an accustomed Node.js use-case.

Command line tools

This use case rests upon the Node.js’ aptitude for writing command-line scripts. On the web, there are plenty of tutorials on building hands-on examples. The technology’s expansive ecosystem is always an advantage, and you will easily find the right packages to make your CLI app.

Hardware programming

Hardware programming is another answer to the question “What does Node.js do?”. The hardware includes robots, quadcopters, various embedded devices and the Internet of things (IoT). IoT can get the most out of Node.js on the server to process numerous simultaneous requests sent by lots and lots of peripheral devices. The JS run-time environment is a kind of interlayer between devices and DBs, and its asynchronous event-driven architecture enables a fast data flow.

Robotics is also an attractive area, which is now open for those having basic JavaScript knowledge. With Node.js and the appropriate frameworks (Johnny-Five, Cylon.js), you have opportunity to delve into programming robots and JS-controlled devices like NodeBots.

What is NOT the best purpose of Node.js?

Considering the use cases described above, you may think that this run-time environment is a silver bullet for any project or idea. I wish! Unfortunately, there are cases when it is better to opt for Ruby on Rails or another technology instead.

CPU-heavy server-side computation

We’ve already said that heavy computations are not a strength of the technology. CPU-intensive operations jeopardize the blockage of the incoming requests and pushing the thread into number-crunching. Thus, all throughput benefits Node.js offers will fall into oblivion.

CRUD apps

A CRUD app model refers to 4 functionality types (Create, Read, Update, Delete) implemented in apps with a relational database. When your goal is a simple CRUD app unencumbered with a separate API with a direct-from-server data route, Node.js might be a more-than-enough solution. On the other hand, to build a server for gathering analytical events, the JS run-time environment technology will be a perfect fit due to numerous parallel requests regardless of the type of DB is used.

Who uses Node.js

Not only independent developers and small dev teams choose the technology for their needs. Providing long-term support, Node.js attracts big companies as well. According to 2018 Node.js User Survey Report, the number of websites built with the tool exceeds 80K, and companies that use Node.js include IBM, Sony, SkyCatch, Uber, PayPal, SAP, and many many others. Check out reputable Node.js app examples we’ve blogged about.

Traditionally, the US is ahead of the pack by international presence (26%) of the technology. The second country in the list of Node.js users is India (10%) followed by Germany and Canada (6%) with a little lag. Globalization of users is expressed by the total number of countries (over 100) they reside in and languages (over 60) they speak. In that context, Europe is the leading hangout of Node.js developers so far.

Most Node.js users opt for Amazon Web Services (AWS) to deploy their products. Its competitors represented by Heroku, Google Cloud, and Digital Ocean Railsware are lagging behind not only AWS but also the on-premise infrastructure deployment, which experiences growth due to the rising Node.js popularity among big companies. Railsware, in turn, has posted our review of the best hosting services for Node.js.

Bottom Line

According to statistics, three in four engineers that employ this tech stack go into backend or full stack development. At the same time, along with a thumping majority of web apps built with the JS run-time environment, there are many other options for how to use Node.js in the digital world. Some of them you have discovered in this article, while even more information can be drawn out of the best Node.js books. Your next or current project, whether it is involved in programming robots/drones/devices or building a complex single page/real-time/data streaming app or even a huge IoT system will benefit from this tech stack. Eventually, you’ll ask yourself “Why not use Node.js?”, and take it for a spin.

3 Ways of Optimum Budgeting for Your IT Security and Services

Just because something works, for now, does not mean it cannot be improved. Just because there is a continuous flow of money into your IT budget does not mean that there is no need to put it to better use.

Just because something works, for now, does not mean it cannot be improved. Just because there is a continuous flow of money into your IT budget does not mean that there is no need to put it to better use. In any IT Company, budget plays the role of prime importance as it is from the budget where the bucks to get better comes; be it in terms of infrastructure, technology, hiring professionals, cyber-security, or any other company aspect.

With the increase in the online exchange of data and security measures, which all have their own expenditures, it is tough to decide where to invest it.

To make it easier, here are 3 ways to control your company budget:

#1 Opting for a Managed IT service provider

As far as budget maintenance is concerned, an effective way of safekeeping your business networking is by outsourcing it to a managed IT services provider. This lets you relieve your IT team of the company service management and pass the job over to a highly-qualified team of professional experts. This saves a lot of both time and money which would otherwise have been spent in solving issues that might have been beyond the expertise of your internal team. Opting for such a service lets your own team concentrate on new projects than on solving problems for older ones.

There are many outsourced IT Services Atlanta that provide all-around safekeeping and development of your company’s business network. They not only assess your present business figures but also those of the market and provide recommendations on how to make your business grow and prepare for the future.

#2 Considering Cloud-Based storage services

This comes in handy in two ways. Firstly, it brings down the budget that comes with server and other hardware buying costs, labor that comes with setting these up and last but not the least, their powering costs.

Secondly, there is the issue of software updates. Updating business network applications is only natural for effective working. Softwares are updated seldom to fix bugs and patch security holes and other issues. But updates are not applied automatically. They are first made to go through various quality-checks by the staff. Only after this are the updates applied to the solution. But this is very much time consuming and costs labor as the staff has to leave other important work in order handle such updates and fixes.

This problem has been solved by many managed IT services providers. Numerous managed IT Services Atlantaoffer cloud-based storage services. Firstly, you do not have to make your staff go through all the hard work of analyzing the updates and then putting them into effect. This job will be done by a team of professional experts appointed for the job. This not only allows your staff to focus on other important work but also keeps all your business applications updated.

#3 Applying a Bring Your Own Device( BYOD) policy

This involves granting your staff access to your business network using their mobile devices. Although there are many companies that do not allow this as a security measure, this is no more a threat. With so many high-end encryption solutions available, that allow managing the user’s device without intruding in his or her privacy, this is a step for increasing workflow and productivity that has been proved effective. According to various reports, workers at various offices are able to work better when allowed to use their own mobile devices to access their emails, documents and connecting to others. Many IT Services Atlanta have allowed the usage of personal mobile devices. Implementing this technique further enables a company to save more on employee expenditure.

The key to controlling your company budget lies in knowing where to look for savings and how can the budget be made more effective. Keeping the above three points in mind will help you a lot in saving your budget as far as online business systems are concerned.

Crypto as Leading Industry in 2021

Cryptocurrency has various advantages over conventional digital payment systems. Crypto dealings usually have low processing fees, and crypto enables the ability to avoid chargebacks. It has a decentralized nature. Often people choose crypto because of privacy.

  • Cryptocurrency started its journey in 2009 when Bitcoin released its open-source software system.
  • Since then, Cryptocurrency has grown by leap and bounds, and its market capital reached $17.7 billion in January 2017.
  • 2017 was the year when Bitcoin became the talk of the town around the world. During this time, many investors invested in it, and everyone around the world wanted to know more about the crypto-craze.
  • The market capitalization increased from $17.7 billion to a whopping $565.
  • 1 billion between 1-st January and 31-st December 2017. Following the success of Bitcoin, several other cryptocurrencies appeared.
  • Even Facebook created its cryptocurrency named Libra.

Dating platforms accepting Cryptocurrency

As every industry is opening its arms for Cryptocurrency to lure in more customers, the best dating sites in US accept digital payments in Crypto. For example, Hookupgeek take digital payments for their services. While most dating websites are free to use, but you have to pay to use the premium features which help you find more potential matches. While one can pay for these services using a traditional system, and people usually do, but the reasons why paying with crypto should be preferred are:

  • Paying with Cryptocurrency gives you more privacy
  • You can quickly pay from anywhere in the world
  • Cheaper costs with Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency gives you exceptional privacy; any transaction done with Crypto has no personal information associated with it. It cannot be tracked back to you, unlike traditional transactions. Banks take up too much personal information. Everything about you is trackable just if someone with enough authority looks at your transaction done via a credit card transfer. Still, many people turn a blind eye to all the benefits and pay with credit cards on digital dating sites. However, while accessing adult hookup sites, people are critical about their privacy and want to make secure transactions. Cryptocurrency comes in handy at such situations. Other than taking care of confidentiality, Cryptocurrency has several other benefits. Traditional transfers can become complicated once you are paying for service abroad as you would need a global payment system like Mastercard or PayPal.

Moreover, such transactions come up with hefty transfer charges. Cryptocurrency transfers are possible from anywhere in the world, and no middle man is involved in the transfer. Another astonishing advantage of Crypto transfers is the fact that they are not taxed. As no one can know the personal information of the sender and no banks or government officers are neither involved in the transaction nor can they get the details about it. Some popular dating platforms, which support Bitcoin, are Luxy, OkCupid, Badoo, and BitCoinFriendsDate. They are top dating sites. 

Getting started with Crypto

Often people are afraid of learning about Cryptocurrency and shy away from all the benefits. Getting started on crypto is not that hard, and many advisors on the net can help you kick-start with ease. If you are into some dating stuff on the web,  such companies aimed at providing the right tools to anyone who wants to invest time in online dating can come in handy.

For those who want to get to grips with Crypto, there an easy 4-step guide has been developed, using which anyone can step foot in the Crypto world right away. It helps its customers avoid scams and use natural methods for dealing in crypto. 

There is a simple 4 step guide is given below, following which you can jump-start on your crypto ventures:

  • Choosing the right exchange
  • Choosing the right wallet
  • Selecting the right Cryptocurrency for yourself (like Bitcoin)
  • Recommendations on spending Crypto

While using dating sites, it is recommended to use Bitcoin or other Cryptocurrencies as first and foremost, and you need to protect your privacy.

Today more and more dating platforms are starting to support Crypto. When using adult hookups sites, privacy is the most critical concern, and Crypto comes in handy as people mostly want to use these services privately. Other than privacy Cryptocurrency is also going to help you save money. It provides advantages of convenience, speed, and international coverage. Stepping foot in the Crypto world may seem complicated and hard initially but benefiting from the services of trusted and leading advisors like hookupgeek will make the entire process easier for you. The dating industry nowadays breaks down the whole process for you, and you have to follow the small and easy steps. Before you know it, you can make transactions all over the world using Crypto for dating sites and other purposes. It is believed that cryptocurrency will be leading the world soon, so you need to master it as soon as possible.

Important Benefits Of Artificial Intelligence

This blog will help us to know about how an Artificial Intelligence helping us in many ways.

Did you realize Artificial Intelligence may bring about a whopping $15.7 trillion into the international market by 2030!? In addition to economical positive aspects, AI is additionally responsible to generating our own lives less difficult. This short article is about how important Of Artificial Intelligence can assist you to comprehend just how Artificial Intelligence is affecting most of domain names of their entire life and also in the last profiting to humankind.

Here I will be talking about some important benefits of Artificial Intelligence in the following domains:

  1. In Automation
  2. In Productivity
  3. In Decision Making
  4. In Solving Complex Problems
  5. In Economy
  6. In Managing Repetitive Tasks
  7. In Personalization
  8. In Global Defense
  9. In Disaster Management
  10. In Lifestyle

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In Automation

Artificial Intelligence may be used to automate whatever that develops from tasks which demand extreme labour to this practice of recruiting.

You will find a variety of AI-based software which may be utilized to automate the recruiting procedure. These tools help to free the staff members from dull manual responsibilities and permit them to concentrate on complex responsibilities such as decision making and strategizing.

In Automation

A good instance of the could be that the AI recruiter MYA. This Application concentrates on automating dull regions of the recruiting process like monitoring sourcing and screening.

Mya is trained by utilizing Advanced level Machine Learning calculations and also using Natural Language Processing (NLP) to choose upon details which include up, within a conversation. Mya is additionally responsible for making candidate profiles and perform analytics and finally shortlist the deserving applicants.

In Productivity

Artificial Intelligence Is now a requirement in the entire enterprise world. It really is getting used to handle highly specialized tasks which want maximum work along with time.

Did you understand that 64 percent of most companies or businesses rely on AI-based software to elevated productivity and growth?

                                                                               In Productivity

A good illustration of this kind of application could be your legal robot. I predict it that the Harvey Spectre of this digital planet.

This bot utilizes machine learning methods or techniques such as deep learning along with Natural Language Processing to comprehend and examine valid records, locate and fix expensive authorized glitches, collaborate with legal knowledgeable professionals, Describe valid provisions by executing an AI-based scoring platform and many more. It also enables one to assess the contract together with people at an identical marketplace to Be sure yours is more ordinary.

In Smart Decision Making

One of the most important goals of Artificial Intelligence will be to Help in creating smarter business decisions. Salesforce Einstein that’s a comprehensive AI for CRM (Customer Relationship Management), has managed to accomplish so quite effortlessly.

As Albert Einstein said:

“The meaning of genius is taking the complex and making it basic.”

                                                                       Smart Decision Making

Salesforce Einstein is removing the complexity of Artificial Intelligence and allowing organizations to deliver brighter, and more personalized consumer experiences. Propelled by creative Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Natural Language Processing, along with predictive modeling, Einstein is implemented in large scale businesses such as discovering useful insights, forecasting promote behaviour and producing improved and better decisions.

In Complex Problems

During the years, AI has improved in straightforward Machine Learning Algorithms to innovative machine learning concepts like Deep Learning. This progress in AI has helped companies solve sophisticated issues such as fraud detection, medical investigation, climate forecasting and so on.

                                                                       Solve Complex Problems

Let consider the use case of how PayPal uses Artificial Intelligence in fraud detection. By use of deep learning, PayPal is now able to identify possible fraudulent activities very quickly.

PayPal acquired $235 billion in payments from several billion transactions by its more than a hundred and seventy million clients.

Machine learning and deep learning algorithms mine the information out of the customer’s purchasing history as well as reviewing patterns of fraud saved in its own databases also may tell if a specific transaction is fraudulent or maybe not.

In Economy

No matter if AI is known as a hazard into this earth, it’s believed to contribute in excess of $15 trillion into the entire world market from the year 2030.

As per a recent report by PwC, the progressive advances in AI increases the international GDP by up to 14 percent between today and 2030, the equal of an extra $15.7 trillion contribute into the world’s economy.

                                                                                 In Economy

It’s also stated that the most important financial gains in AI Is likely to be in China and North America. These countries will account for almost 70 percent of the global financial impact. The exact same report also demonstrates the greatest impact of Artificial Intelligence will be at the fields of robotics and healthcare.

The report also claims that approximately $6.6 trillion of the anticipated GDP growth can result in productivity benefits, especially within the coming decades. Big contributors to the growth include the automation of routine tasks and the evolution of smart robots and equipment which may perform all human-level activities.

Currently, a lot of the tech giants are already in the process for applying AI like a remedy to laborious tasks. But businesses who are slow to embrace these AI-based alternatives may wind up at a significant competitive disadvantage.

Managing Repetitive Tasks

Performing repetitive tasks can become very monotonous and time-consuming. Using AI for tiresome and regular actions can enable us to focus on the most essential activities inside our to do checklist.

A good example of this kind of AI is the virtual financial helper used by the Bank Of America, known as Erica.

Erica implements AI and ML methods to appeal to the bank’s customer service demands. It does this by simply creating credit report upgrades, easing bill installments along with helping customers with simple transactions process.

                                                                      Managing Repetitive Tasks

Erica’s capabilities have already been enlarged to assist clients make smarter economic choices, by offering them with personalized insights.

At the time of 2019, Erica has surpassed 6 million users and give services Over 35 million customer service requests.


In the research McKinsey found that manufacturers which glow personalization deliver 5 to 8 instances the marketing ROI and raise their own earnings by over 10 percent over businesses which is not  personalized. Personalization may be a very time consuming task, but it might be simplified by way of artificial intelligence. In truth, it has never been better to a target clients using the most suitable item.

A real example of this is the UK based style company ‘Thread’ which works by using AI to provide personalized outfits strategies for every customer.


Most clients could adore a private stylist, particularly just one Which comes free of cost. But staffing ample stylists to get 650,000 clients would be high priced. As an alternative, UK-based style corporation Thread makes use of AI to present personalized outfits strategies for every one of its own customers. Clients take model quizzes to supply data in their private style.

Every week, clients get personalized tips which they could vote down or up. Thread’s utilizes a Machine Learning algorithm named Thimble which works by using consumer information to discover patterns and also understand precisely the kind of the purchaser. Additionally, it proposes clothes predicated around the consumer’s preference.

Global Defense

Even the most advanced robots on earth are being assembled with international defense applications in mind. This isn’t any surprise since any cutting-edge technology first gets executed in military software. Though almost all of those applications do not see the light of day, one case we are aware of is your AnBot.

                                                                             Global Defense

The AI-based robot created by the Chinese is an armed police Robot made from the country’s National Defense University. Capable of reaching maximum speeds of 11 miles per hour, the system is intended to patrol locations and, even in case of danger, can deploy an “electrically charged riot control tool.”

The intelligent machine stands in a height of 1.6m and can spot individuals with criminal records. The AnBot has contributed to improving protection by preserving a track of almost any questionable activity happening around its vicinity.

AI for Lead Generation — Here is another utilization of Artificial Intelligence in the present time that by using AI you can create automatic sales Leads for your Business.

Disaster Management

For almost all people, Accurate weather calling makes holiday planning simpler, however, the tiniest progress in forecasting the current weather impacts the marketplace.

Accurate climate forecasting makes it possible for farmers to earn crucial decisions about planting and harvesting. This makes transport simpler and safer & most of all it’s might be utilized to predict natural disasters which influence the lifestyles of many.

                                                                        Disaster Management

After decades of study, IBM surfaced together with all the weather company and obtained lots of info. The venture gave IBM entry into this weather company’s mathematical versions, which furnished lots of weather conditions data it might propel to IBM’s AI stage Watson to try to boost predictions.

Back in 2016 that the weather company claimed their versions utilized greater than a hundred terabytes of third party data each day.

The item with this biography would be your AI established IBM deep thunder. Even the system supplies highly customized information to business customers using hyper-local predictions — in a 0.2 into 1.2-mile resolution. This info is helpful for transport providers, utility businesses, and also merchants.

Enhances Lifestyle

From the current years, Artificial Intelligence has progressed out of the science fiction movie storyline into a vital portion of our lives. Due to the fact the development of AI from the 1950s, we’ve observed exponential increase in its prospective. We utilize AI established digital assistants like Siri, Cortana, and Alexa to socialize together with all our mobiles as well as other apparatus; It can be utilised to foresee lethal diseases like ALS and leukemia.

                                                                           Enhances Lifestyle

Amazon tracks our surfing habits then serves products up it thinks we want to buy, and also Google determines exactly what contributes give us predicated on our search activity.

Irrespective of being contemplated a danger AI still proceeds to assist people In many manners. Like the way Eliezer Yudkowsky, co-founder and study fellow in Machine Intelligence Research Institute said:

“By a long shot, the most serious peril of Artificial Intelligence is that individuals conclude too soon that they get it.”

For this particular note, I’d love to complete by requesting one personally, just how can you presume Artificial Intelligence may help people create a much better universe?

Therefore for this particular, we arrived at a conclusion with this section Benefits Of Artificial Intelligence. Stay tuned in for a lot more blogs in the many trending technologies.  


Author’s Bio
Name :- Ikhlas Mohd. Saqib

Location:- Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Designation:- SEO Executive

I am an SEO executive in the Edunbox and there i handle all the SEO related and Content Writing works.

My Blog:-



What is the best IDE for all languages?

Find the list of pricing, reviews & features of the best Integrated Development Environment (IDE) software. Select the IDE tools for your business.

List of Best IDE Tools | Best IDE Software Solutions

  1. Eclipse
  2. IntelliJ IDEA
  3. JDeveloper
  4. RStudio
  5. Netbeans
  6. Webstorm
  7. Pycharm
  8. Rubymine
  9. Clion
  10. Visual Studio
  11. Komodo IDE
  12. Codelite

1. Eclipse

“The Platform for Open Innovation and Collaboration”

Go To Website Free Trial:N/A Starting Price:Contact Vendor

2. IntelliJ IDEA

The drive to develop Create Anything. It`s the main IDE for Web development.

Go To Website Free Trial:30 Days Starting Price:$499/Year

3. JDeveloper

Productive Java-based Application Development.

Go To Website Free Trial:N/A Starting Price:Contact Vendor

4. RStudio

Take control of your R code.

Go To Website Free Trial:45 Days Starting Price:Contact Vendor

5. Netbeans

Fits the Pieces Together

Go To Website Free Trial:Available Starting Price:Free version

6. Webstorm

The smartest JavaScript IDE

Go To Website Free Trial:30 Days Starting Price:$129/Year

7. Pycharm

“The Python IDE for Professional Developers”

Go To Website Free Trial:30 Days Starting Price:$199/Year

8. Rubymine

the most intelligent ruby and rails IDE

Go To Website Free Trial:30 Days Starting Price:$199/Year

9. Clion

A cross-platform IDE for C and C++

Go To Website Free Trial:30 Days Starting Price:$199/Year

10. Visual Studio

Best-in-class tools for any developer

Go To Website Free Trial:N/A Starting Price:$1199/Year

11. Komodo IDE

One IDE For All Your Languages.

Go To WebsiteFree Trial:21 Days Starting Price:Contact Vendor

12. Codelite

A Free, open source, cross platform C,C++,PHP and Node.js IDE

Go To Website Free Trial:Available Starting Price:Free version

About Classes in Node.js

Classes in Node.js

Preface. This is my first article and English is not my native language. At the beginning, I wrote it for myself, just for memory, but now I decided to share it. Maybe it could be useful for someone. So, don’t judge me too strictly.

Classes is the most important fundamental concept in Object Oriented Programming (OOP). Therefore, it is important to know how to work with them. ES6 gives us very nice new syntax for class declaration.

class Class1{
        console.log(‘Initialize Class1 object’);
        console.log(‘Arg=’, arg);

To create a new object:

const obj1 = new Class1(5);

Why we using ‘const’? It is important to understand. Variable obj1 keeps link to an object. All changes in our object will be in its properties. That is why obj1 never changes and we can use const declaration.

Professional developing demands good programming style. When we work with classes and objects good style is to keep every class in a separate file. It makes code clearer for understanding and allows encapsulation principles. And here we get a little problem. Node.js module mechanism allows us to export variables, functions and objects, but not classes. That’s why realization is a little tricky. First let’s make a file app.js, directory classes and file Class1.js in it. app.js:

‘use strict’
const Class1 = require(“./classes/Class1”);

const obj1 = new Class1(5);
console.log(`Object property = ${obj1.val}`);

In file with class declaration first we will declare internal empty object. It will be a container for our exported class.


‘use strict’

const internal = {};

module.exports = internal.Class1 = class{
        console.log('Initialize Class1 object’);
        this.val = arg;

Now, if we start our application in terminal we will get this:

$ node app
Initialize Class1 object
Object property = 5

It means that we successfully exported our class, imported it and created an object with val property which is equals to 5. Congratulations. Furthermore, we can implement public and private properties and method in our class. To do this, all privates we just declare in a class file out of class declaration. New class file:

'use strict'

const internal = {};

module.exports = internal.Class1 = class {
    console.log('Initialize Class1 object');
    this.val = arg;
    console.log(`Public method with the help of private got this value: ${_method(x)}`);

let _val = 12;

function _method(x){
  return _val * x;

Now, pubMethod is public and we can invoke it through our object obj1.pubMethod(28);and _method and _val is private and we can use it only inside the methods of our class. Let’s update our app.js and start the application: app.js

'use strict'
const Class1 = require("./classes/Class1");

const obj1 = new Class1(5);
console.log('Object property = ', obj1.val);
$ node app
Initialize Class1 object
Object property =  5
Public method with the help of private got this value: 336

When I found this for the first time, I was very happy 🙂

This is just a carcass, and I will try to wright a practical realization of this methodic in next article. It can be used in modeling in RESTful application, for example. on

The Best Course Authoring Software Feature Guide for You

Course authoring software products allow organizations to create engaging and interactive multimedia content for educational purposes. Course authoring software is used by to develop training courses and content that can be consumed in either a corporate or more traditional educational setting. › categories › course-authoring

So you need course authoring software like Udemy.

Maybe because I keep whining at my readers that it’s a necessity (it is), or because you want to go freelance and sell courses for other businesses. Perhaps your boss finally caved to your requests for it, or maybe you are a boss and know that your trainers and content designers have been requesting it.

Whatever the reason, you’re seeking the perfect software fit and you’ve found yourself in a tricky spot. You know you need something, but you’re not entirely clear on what that something is.

Videos would be cool, wouldn’t they? And a forum, maybe, because social learning is important. And what’s the deal with gamification?

Whatever the feature, wherever you’re starting, this guide will let you know what’s on the market and what key features to look for.

We break each feature down by explaining how it works, what questions you should ask when considering each software type, and why we think it’s a must-have.

Let’s get started!


How it works

Gamified course authoring software awards points for completion, displays scoreboards to compare learner performance, and establishes goals for learners to reach at the end of each section.

This is an increasingly common feature for learning management software (LMS) systems. If you want to gamify your content, you have to create space for gamification in your course. Look for course authoring software that allows you to create native gamification throughout the design process.

Why it’s a must-have

Gamification has been proven to help users understand complex processes. It allows you to track users’ progress and analyze their performance.

Questions to ask

  • How does it break up the material to make it easier for learners to retain the information?
  • Does it have a point system?
  • Can you track their progress?
  • What exactly does the software bring to the learning experience?

#Test/quiz creation

How it works

Test and quiz creation is essential to tracking learner progress. If your course authoring software does not have a built-in method for creating assessments, you should look for another system.

Almost all course authoring software offers some type of assessment feature, so you’ll want to focus on the quality of that feature. You want a quiz creation system that’s easy and intuitive to use, and preferably pushes live in your LMS.

Why it’s a must-have

Quizzes are crucial to knowing how well your content is getting through to your audience. If you can’t measure your content’s efficacy, you have no way of knowing whether you need to change it.

Questions to ask

  • Does the software include a test/quiz creation feature?
  • Does it allow you to share a test or quiz with your learners?
  • Can it be accessed via mobile devices, and is it user-friendly?
  • Does it allow you to track user progress?

#Interactive content

How it works

Interactive content allows some level of responsiveness to learner input. This can take the form of in-app answers for learner questions, or exploratory games and simulations.

When you’re creating content, keep in mind how users will engage with it. Interactive content is more entertaining and helps learners retain information better than static presentation. Much like gamification, you’re not looking for course authoring software that is itself interactive, but rather software that gives course designers the space to create such content.

Why it’s a must-have

Interactive content will stick with your learners longer than classic presentations. It allows users to engage with courses more thoroughly, think more critically, and apply learned information to real-life situations more easily.

Questions to ask

  • Does your course authoring software include a user-friendly interface for dashboards and discussion?
  • Will it integrate with communication software, or does it come with its own communication component?

#Template management

How it works

Templates are a great asset in course design. They take away the pressure of coming up with a format from scratch, and typically look cleaner and more professional.

Templates are downloadable bases used to craft your content, which can be a bonus for the artistically challenged among us. A template management featurewhich lets you create templates, and download and save pre-made templates from outside resourceswill help you organize your content.

Templates are incredibly useful. Just fill in the blanks.

Why it’s a must-have

More likely than not, you don’t have the time to create your own templates. Having some to choose from within your course authoring software system allows you to focus on the content, rather than the cosmetic details.

Once you’ve amassed a trove of templates, you’ll have to keep them organized. Template management features will make this task easier.

Questions to ask

  • Does the software offer templates?
  • Does the software offer features specifically designed for content engagement?
  • Does the software allow customization?

#Video conferencing

How it works

With the ubiquitous nature of FaceTime and Skype, video conferencing might not seem very exciting. It’s crucial for course authoring software, though, especially if you’re collaborating in your course writing or instructing remotely.

It’s unusual for video conferencing to be built in to course authoring software, but if you’re working with a remote team it might be an uncommon but necessary feature to look for.

Why it’s a must-have

If you’re instructing remotely, video conferencing is the way you’ll reach your learners. If you’re team-teaching, video conferencing can help you plan the course in real time.

On the user end, video conferences can be recorded, rewound, and replayed over and over, making content easier to remember and retain.

Questions to ask

  • Is the software compatible with your laptop or phone camera?
  • Does it work in-app, or does the software offer third-party integration with FaceTime, Skype, or other video software?

#SCORM compliance

How it works

Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) combines content packaging—which allows software to run your content automatically—and data exchange (in which your content communicates with your LMS in real time).

SCORM is a comprehensive LMS set of design standards ensuring that all learning management systems can work together. SCORM compliance means your course authoring software creates exchangeable content that can be shared across compliant platforms.

Why it’s a must-have

SCORM has become the baseline platform for most LMSs. Being SCORM compliant will help you share your content with users, improve their experience, and streamline your LMS network.

Without it, you’ll need to make dozens of copies of your content that are compatible with multiple types of learning management systems. SCORM compliance ultimately saves you time and effort.

Questions to ask

  • Does your course authoring software specifically state that it is SCORM compliant? (If it doesn’t, it’s probably not.)

#Course publishing

How it works

Publishing your content means users can access it online, from a mobile device, or through a downloadable package, all without a problem. There are several types of publishing software (other than SCORM) that you can use, but course publishing itself is crucial for learner access.

You’ll need to determine whether your content requires course authoring software that pushes to a set LMS or if you want one that packages your content for use across multiple platforms.

Why it’s a must-have

Giving learners the option to access your content offline, via mobile device, or over the internet lets them adapt based on personal schedules and preferences, and ultimately engage with the content on a deeper level.

Questions to ask

  • Does your course authoring software come with a course publishing feature?
  • If not, does it integrate with a third party publisher?
  • Is it SCORM compliant?

#Content import/export

How it works

Content import/export features allow you to upload your content to an external location or bring other content into your course material. It’s a straightforward feature, but necessary: it gives you the ability to widely distribute your content.

Export to share content with learners and colleagues via email. Import interactive elements, infographics, charts, tables, designs, and diagrams. The options are virtually limitless, but only if your course authoring software systems offers a myriad of import/export choices.

Why it’s a must-have

Import/export functionality is vital for good content creation software. Without it, your content may never reach the outside world, benefit from the myriad of helpful elements available to import, or allow you to maximize its full potential. Being able to share and customize your content is essential to creating a diverse and dynamic learner environment.

Questions to ask

  • Does your course authoring software offer third-party integration?
  • Can it connect to the internet?
  • Does it allow you to export your data or import external elements?
  • Does it effectively work with the import/export locations you need?


How it works

Storyboarding allows you to visually organize your content. Telling stories with content is one of the most effective ways to help users engage with the information, especially if their learning style is more visual.

Storyboarding is also an excellent productivity tool when your schedule doesn’t allow for a lot of complex content planning. Look for this feature if you have complex visual material to communicate, or if you’re a visual thinker who needs to stay organized.

Why it’s a must-have

Without learner engagement, even the best content will fall flat. Storyboarding allows you to get creative with the way you present your content, which will give you better user results.

Questions to ask

  • Does the software you’re considering offer content visualization?
  • Does it allow you to personalize a dashboard?
  • Are the layouts learner paced, or fixed?
  • Does it allow you to present your content in a visually pleasing manner?

What are your must-have course authoring software features?

Did I miss any features you hold dear? Have software you want to recommend to other course authors?

4 Ways to use Big Data for Business Needs

Big data has a lavish potential to change the way we run businesses. Last year, over 27% of Fortune 1000 executives said they started seeing a range of benefits from their big data initiatives, from decreasing expenses to creating a data-driven culture.

Big data has a lavish potential to change the way we run businesses. Last year, over 27% of Fortune 1000 executives said they started seeing a range of benefits from their big data initiatives, from decreasing expenses to creating a data-driven culture.

 #1 Keep it clean
#2 When migrate, do it wisely
#3 Don’t leave self-service BI users alone
#4 Overcome internal bottlenecks

It`s time to meet your strategy with technologies!

Testing PDF content with PHP and Behat

If you have a PDF generation functionality in your app, and since most of the libraries out there build the PDF content in an internal structure before outputting it to the file system (FPDF, TCPDF). A good way to write a test for it is to test the output just before the rendering process.

Recently however, and due to this process being a total pain in the ass, people switched to using tools like wkhtmltopdf or some of its PHP wrappers (phpwkhtmltopdfsnappy) that let you build your pages in html/css and use a browser engine to render the PDF for you, and while this technique is a lot more developer friendly, you loose control over the building process.

So if you’re using one of those tools or just need to test for the existence of some string inside a PDF, here’s how to write a BDD style acceptance test for it using Behat.

Setup framework

Add this your composer.json then run composer install

    "minimum-stability": "dev",
    "require": {
        "smalot/pdfparser": "*",
        "behat/behat": "3.*@stable",
        "behat/mink": "1.6.*@stable",
        "phpunit/phpunit": "4.*"
    "config": {
        "bin-dir": "bin/"

Initialize Behat

bin/behat --init

This command creates the initial features directory and a blank FeatureContext class.

If everything worked as expected, your project directory should look like this :

├── bin
│   ├── behat -> ../vendor/behat/behat/bin/behat
│   └── phpunit -> ../vendor/phpunit/phpunit/phpunit
├── composer.json
├── composer.lock
├── features
│   └── bootstrap
└── vendor
    ├── autoload.php
    ├── behat
    ├── composer
    ├── doctrine
    ├── phpdocumentor
    ├── phpspec
    ├── phpunit
    ├── sebastian
    ├── smalot
    ├── symfony

All right, it’s time to create some features, create a new file inside /feature, I’ll name mine pdf.feature

Feature: Pdf export
  Scenario: PDF must contain text
    Given I have pdf located at "samples/sample1.pdf"
    When I parse the pdf content
    Then the the page count should be "1"
    Then page "1" should contain
Document title  Calibri : Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

Run Behat (I know we didn’t write any testing code yet, just run it, trust me!)


An awesome feature of Behat is it detects any missing steps and provides you with boilerplate code you can use in your FeatureContext. This is the output of the last command:

Feature: Pdf export
  Scenario: PDF must contain text                     # features/pdf.feature:3
    Given I have pdf located at "samples/sample1.pdf"
    When I parse the pdf content
    Then the the page count should be "1"
    Then page "1" should contain
      Document title  Calibri : Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.
1 scenario (1 undefined)
4 steps (4 undefined)
0m0.01s (9.28Mb)
--- FeatureContext has missing steps. Define them with these snippets:
     * @Given I have pdf located at :arg1
    public function iHavePdfLocatedAt($arg1)
        throw new PendingException();
     * @When I parse the pdf content
    public function iParseThePdfContent()
        throw new PendingException();
     * @Then the the page count should be :arg1
    public function theThePageCountShouldBe($arg1)
        throw new PendingException();
     * @Then page :arg1 should contain
    public function pageShouldContain($arg1, PyStringNode $string)
        throw new PendingException();

Cool right? copy/paste the method definitions to you FeatureContext.php and let’s get to it, step by step :

Step 1

Given I have pdf located at "samples/sample1.pdf"

In this step we only need to make sure the filename we provided is readable then store it in a class property so we can use it in later steps:

     * @Given I have pdf located at :filename
    public function iHavePdfLocatedAt($filename)
        if (!is_readable($filename)) {
            Throw new \InvalidArgumentException(
                sprintf('The file [%s] is not readable', 
        $this->filename = $filename;

Step 2

When I parse the pdf content

The heavy lifting is done here, we need to parse the PDF and store its content and metadata in a usable format:

     * @When I parse the pdf content
    public function iParseThePdfContent()
        $parser = new Parser();
        $pdf    = $parser->parseFile($this->filename);
        $pages  = $pdf->getPages();
        $this->metadata = $pdf->getDetails();
        foreach ($pages as $i => $page) {
            $this->pages[++$i] = $page->getText();

Step 3

Then the the page count should be "1"

Since we already know how many pages the PDF contains, this is a piece of cake, so let’s not reinvent the wheel and use PHPUnit assertions:

     * @Then the the page count should be :pageCount
     * @param int $pageCount
    public function theThePageCountShouldBe($pageCount)
            (int) $pageCount, 

Step 4

Then page "1" should contain
Document title  Calibri : Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

Same method, we have an array containing all content from all pages, a quick assertion does the trick:

     * @Then page :pageNum should contain
     * @param int $pageNum
     * @param PyStringNode $string
    public function pageShouldContain($pageNum, PyStringNode $string)
            (string) $string, 

Et voilà! you should have green

Feature: Pdf export
  Scenario: PDF must contain text                     # features/pdf.feature:3
    Given I have pdf located at "samples/sample1.pdf" # FeatureContext::iHavePdfLocatedAt()
    When I parse the pdf content                      # FeatureContext::iParseThePdfContent()
    Then the the page count should be "1"             # FeatureContext::theThePageCountShouldBe()
    Then page "1" should contain                      # FeatureContext::pageShouldContain()
      Document title  Calibri : Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.
1 scenario (1 passed)
4 steps (4 passed)

For the purpose of this article, we’re relying on the PDF parser library which has many encoding and white space issues, feel free to use any PHP equivalent or a system tool like xpdf for better results.

If you want to make your test more decoupled (and you should). One way is to create a PDFExtractor interface then implement it for each tool you want to use, that way you can easily swap libraries.

The source code behind this article is provided here, any feedback is most welcome.


GDPR’s effects on Startups

A new ruling, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), taking effect in May 2018 will have a worldwide impact on firms including those in the USA who have interests, holdings, customers and other touch points on European soil. How will GDPR effect the startup tech community? Will this stifle the idea of work fast and break things? Will this cause an increase in costs for startups? Will startups be reticent to enter EU markets?

Looking for opinions and quotes from policy and legal experts on how GDPR will effect startups in the US.

5 Industries Perfect for Outsourcing Software Development

Curious if your business or upcoming project will make a good fit for outsourcing? The truth is that most software development projects are successful with the right team. However, according to a recent SourceSeek survey, these 5 industries are best for outsourcing software development. The entire report, which contains data from over 600 software development teams from across the globe can be found on Clutch.


This may seem obvious, but the data shows that E-Commerce is truly perfect for outsourcing. According to our report, 18% of teams list E-Commerce as one of their top-3 specialties — nearly 50% higher than the next closest specialty. What’s even better is that the average hourly rate for top notch E-Commerce specialists is only $29/hour, 7% below the average for all offshore development.


Financial Technology (FinTech) continues to make news with the widespread adoption of new consumer-facing technologies. Betterment, WealthFront,, as well as world-changing ideas like BitCoin are making a dent in this legacy industry. Development teams are catching on to these trends, and 13% of survey respondents report Finance/Banking as a core expertise. While, the $33/hour average these teams charge is slightly above average for offshore development, it’s still a bargain given the complexity of many finance and banking applications.


Everyone is waiting for the heath care industry to modernize. Our data shows offshore teams are a great way for healthcare companies to upgrade their technology at a reasonable price. 12% of survey respondents identify healthcare as one of their top specialties, and with an average hourly rate of $30, healthcare companies would be wise to look offshore for development talent.


Similar to healthcare, the education industry is infamous for slow technological adoption. Schools, teachers, and universities need better software but often lack the funds or skills to produce it themselves. That may be changing, however. Over 8% of survey respondents have an expertise in education technology (EdTech), and only charge an average of $30/hr. That is a rate even educational organizations with small budgets should be able to afford.


It’s no secret that the internet an entertainment are made for one another. From live content, to steaming movies, to video games, it’s safe to assume new and novel entertainment sites will continue to pop up with frequency. It’s a competitive market, but one area to gain an edge over competitors is development costs. By using an offshore team, you could pay just $34/hr for teams with an average of 8 years of experience in digital media/entertainment.

Which of the following is not true about in-house development

At the beginning of any new project, you will undoubtedly face the question: how to translate your idea into reality? Where to find experienced professionals and how to organize a team for the development? We know how tiresome this choice can be, so let’s outline the biggest advantages of both these options. In this article we’ll help to further learn, which path to go when you are considering in-house software development vs outsourcing?

Team work is a key

Turning to a specialized company you get well-established development processes.

Which of the following is not true about in-house development?

In-house Software Development

What is in-house software development definition? It is a software development that is run by a corporate entity for the organizational uses. Let’s see an example to better understand the in-house software development meaning. A company, which may have or not a relation to the IT sector decides to develop their own digital product. In this case, the company should use their own workers to develop the system and needs to conduct hiring procedure. Though the cost of hiring staff is high enough, it’s getting many advantages of in-house software development.


No language/cultural boundaries. It is a team of the professionals probably from the same country/city as you are, with the same cultural and language background working within the same organization. What advantages does it give to you? Fewer boundaries and limitations, face-to-face communications and as the result better understanding of what should be done.

Deep involvement. It allows you to maximize the customization of in-house software development process for every minor need of your company. You can make appropriate changes in the development process easily to adjust the project to your business.

In-project expertise. Internal specialists master their skills in building the project you started and soon become narrowly focused professionals of the highest level. This reduces bugs and in addition, it means that the support will be straightforward and efficient, and your company will be able to maintain the product independently.


Huge price. It requires many funds to be invested at the initial stages, especially in small and large-scale projects. If the organization of the processes is lame, you’ll need to spend money even for inactivity. However, in middle-scale projects where the product is a valuable resource the scheme works well.

Staff dismissal. One of the biggest in-house software development risks is the dismissal of employees. After companies have invested significant resources in their adaptation, they can go away and you’ll need to invest in new members of the team again.

The lack of expertise in different areas. There is another classic problem with an in-house software development pool. In order to apply specific skills you’ll need to hire a specific candidate, and thus, run the hiring again. The same situation is in the case of project expanding. If the employee works in-house, you will have to pay insurance fees, premises, equipment, holidays, etc.

Outsourced Software Development

As we’ve got some knowledge on what is in-house software development praise, let’s overlook the outsourcing as well. Outsourcing is a practice when an outsourcing company builds products for your company. It also has both pros and cons to consider.


Price-wise expertise. Outsourcing price is more reasonable and teams have more development experience in different fields. If an unusual problem arises, there is no need to hire new specialists into the company. With the proper planning, you can reach the same goal with a smarter budget.

Smart time-to-market. Outsourcing allows avoiding all major hiring and staffing issues, which usually occurs if you practice in-house development. You can add features that matter to your customers at any time, no matter which skills do they require. This definitely shortens the timing of the product launch.

Easy scaling of teams. If you need to expand the team urgently or to cut staff, you do not lose money. All the people on such projects are replaceable.
Streamlined processes. Turning to a specialized company you get well-established development processes and experience. All the processes are set uprightly.


Mutual understanding. Despite the fact, that the geographical and language barriers have become a thing of the past, in outsourcing the requirements are the main source of coherence for your company and developers. The vendor will develop a product according to agreed specifications, so you have to be sure you are on the same page regarding the acceptance criteria.

Transparency and security risks. The lack of direct in-person control and communications can cause a lack of trust to have a place while a project development. Although, it depends on the specific contractor. This issue can be limited by choosing the right partner. Be sure that you agree with the way of reporting, acknowledgment, meetings schedules, which are comfortable for both parties.

Risk of receiving an unsupported code. If you outsource your strategically important product, make sure you can maintain the code without contractor involvement. Otherwise, your business will become dependent on the outsourcing team. Although, of course, the quality of the code depends on the integrity of the contractor.

What Is Your Best Choice?

Summing up the issue of outsourcing vs in-house software development options it must be said that the choice depends on the specifics of the project. The main rule: if a web application development or maintenance is not the core capability of your company it could be a huge challenge to the IT staff to get it right. They may lack the experience or understanding to get it done. Then after unsuccessful attempts to do it in-house, you can land up with an outsourced product.