In many cases the primary cause of software StartUp failure tends to be poor quality assurance during the development process, this is where end-to-end testing can be used. End-to-end testing is one of the ways to prevent the release of poor-quality software. Simply defined, end-to-end testing is a testing mechanism used to assess whether there are any interruptions in the flow of your software product. It is a comprehensive testing format measuring the product-user interaction from the start to the end.
These tests are useful if you want to determine the functionality of an application prior to providing your customers access to the application. If you haven’t attempted end-to-end testing before, this article is your beginner’s guide.
Why is end-to-end testing required?
In today’s rapidly evolving world, technology plays a major role in almost every sector. Every technological application is an interconnected system of multiple parts which work together as a unified whole outside the application’s environment. This makes the flow of an application complex and thus, needs to be monitored for any possible defects.
End-to-end testing is a process that examines your database as well as the back-end layer within your software product. The prime functions of an application rely on both the database and the back-end layer. By assessing them, end-to-end tests help to determine whether the software is carrying out all essential functions.
If you wish to test an application in different parts of its lifecycle, end-to-end tests offer the ability to do so. You can execute repetitive tests and examine all aspects of your application. This enables owners to increase the coverage of tests and run a successful application.
With the emergence of so many Cloud deployment services and PaaS providers, end-to-end tests have become very useful for testing software products that are deployed in a cloud environment. Testing allows managers to provide an experience to users which is uniform across any device and/or platform.
Steps involved in an end-to-end test
Every end-to-end test relies on the following components:
- Go over the needs of the test thoroughly prior to setting it up
- Organize the testing environment according to protocol
- Assess the requirements of your software product
- Examine all processes within your system and its components and determine their requirements
- Outline the responsibilities of all systems
- Describe the testing techniques that you will follow in addition to the testing standards and guidelines that you intend to follow
- Outline the requirements for developing test cases and mention what tracking methods are in use
- Record the input and output information pertaining to each system
Categories of an end-to-end test
To make our understanding easier, end-to-end tests can be categorized into three types:
Functions of a user
In this section of the test, you can determine whether the user is able to smoothly perform all functions in the software. Mention the features of the software and its interconnected systems. Monitor all actions performed and keep track of the input and output information. Assess if there is any relation between the functions performed by the user. Determine the nature of these functions and whether they can be used again.
Conditions influenced by functions of a user
Building conditions need to be set up in a manner that easily helps you detect errors in flow. It is best to develop conditions for every user function. Include conditions that test factors such as time, sequence, etc.
Developing test cases
Developing the test cases is the next stage in the process of setting up an end-to-end test. Build the test cases using testing parameters available to you. For each scenario and user function, set up more than one test. Also, mention every condition as an independent test case.
Metrics to measure the success of an end-to-end test
The best way to ensure that your testing process will be effective is to utilize testing metrics. Here are four important metrics that help indicate test success:
- Defect information: You will receive a report that indicates the number of defects that were opened or closed every week. Monitor this information and assess whether each defect was severe or not.
- Status of test case preparation: Tracking what stage of test case preparation you are in is essential for mapping progress. Use a graph to measure the progress of your test cases in comparison to the number of tests that you originally planned.
- Test environment availability: This metric is used to track two factors. You will be tracking the total time scheduled for implementing tests in the testing environment each day. You will also measure the amount of time that has been actually spent in performing tests in the same environment.
- Progress of the weekly test: This metric assesses the progress of the tests that are being completed on a weekly basis. You will be comparing tests that have passed, failed, been completed, and not completed yet using this metric.
Before conducting end-to-end testing it is important to outline what it is you want to test and the metrics you are going to use to measure the software’s success. These tests are extremely useful when trying to deliver a top-quality offering and should not be underestimated by any organization.
Erik Fogg is the MIT-educated COO and Co-Founder of ProdPerfect. He loves unleashing the potential of the great folks in the world and loves helping make decisions with facts. A couple of years ago he co-founded ProdPerfect, where he helps his team grow personally and improve their ability to help people solve QA problems. He also helps customers use actual live data–instead of educated guesses–when deciding what tests to write and maintain. In his spare time, he podcasts and writes books about making fact-based decisions in business and politics.
It’s a kind of software testing used for verifying the functionality of the applications software application. Functional testing involves testing functions with values, estimating the output and comparing the actual output with expected values. Functional testing performed as blackbox testing which shows that a program or system functions as expected and that its functionality can be confirmed. Using this data we are verifying that the software is working properly and properly. Functional tests are also referred to as “blackbox tests” due to application specifications.
Introduction to Functional Testing
It must define what’s acceptable behaviour and what doesn’t. This is defined by functional requirements, specifications or requirements. The document describes the right to do it and allows users to determine if a program conforms with it. In addition, in some cases there may be business scenarios which require validation. Functional tests can therefore be performed using two popular techniques. As testers we need to understand each type of testing even if we don’t directly work with them everyday.
Depending on the situation and the author, different types of scenarios are considered as test scenarios. We have all seen how test cases are structured and tested. The entire book is in 4 parts; trying to make a whole test is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Normally, the tests will find the maximum bug and eliminate the exception from upcoming tests. Therefore, it’s crucial that QA employ optimization techniques as a strategy for testing. Tell me the best example. Functional test case Example: Take HRMS-based web sites where employees log into the site and login using their id and password.
Functional testing automation
Is automated testing necessary? Automation reduces manual work, saves time, eliminates bugs and improves efficiency. Nevertheless, automation is impossible for every single thing. Tests can also be performed automatically, but users must create test scenarios to automate these tests to be performed correctly. The best way to automate tests is by identifying the right tests with the requisite software tools. Automating functional cases may cause problems, such as the number of tests is much more and is then withdrawn again (as needed) then there could be some difficulty in making a change.
Tell me the purpose of static testing?
Static tests help identify early errors. This reduces development time using static testing techniques. So tests are less expensive and more difficult to conduct. Static test is also used for developing productivity. Component Testing: Component testing is another form of software testing that tests the components individually and does NOT integrate with other components. Similarly component test can be referred to as blackbox testing. Component Testing also commonly called unit testing, program testing or module testing. Grey box testing: GreyBox testing defines itself as combining White Box and Black Box testing.
Explain the types of functional testing
Functional testing aims at testing component functionality. Functional tests are divided into a few areas. Below you can view our functional testing. Unit tests: A unit test is an example of a software test. It is the test for individual components of software. Unit Testing examines the different parts of applications by unit tests functional tests as well as functional tests, since unit tests ensure that the modules function properly. Developers test unit in software environment. Unit tests are performed in development stages on applications. Smoking tests: Functional tests using SMS tests.
What are the advantages of Functional Testing?
Functional tests have many advantages including: In a bank with funds transferred to a bank B. Bank B doesn’t receive the proper amount, fees apply, or the money is not converted to the correct currency, or incorrect transfers, or banks B doesn’t receive a notification of the receipt of the payments from banks. It’s crucial to solve those questions, which are prevented by functional testing.
What are functional testing tools?
Functional tests are done in a number of other ways than manual tests. It enables quicker test procedures and helps you obtain accurate results. It’s an important and high-quality method that was determined and specified prior to the development. Functional testing is performed using:
The goal of functional testing
Functional tests examine the entry functions, a necessary usable function for the user interface. Functional Tests displays the error messages for ease of navigation.
What to test in functional testing? Explain
Functional tests are generally aimed at evaluating a system’s functionality. There are six main types of testing: unit testing, integration testing, and functional testing. Unit testing focuses on the smallest parts of an application and checks if they work properly. Integration testing tests the connections between different components. Functional testing tests how a system or application meets the user’s needs by simulating use cases.
What are functional testing types?
Smoke tests are performed on new builds provided by developers to test QA for functionality. This is considered a key type in functional tests. It should be a first test for any new construction. Smoke tests cover a specific function or component of a system’s function. The objective isn’t merely to do extensive testing, but to ensure that all critical systems functions are functioning properly. Generally, the build passes the Smoking Test and is considered to be stable. For a stable build, QA teams perform functional testing.
When a developer updates the functionality/feature, this can lead to unforeseen behavior. Regression testing is done in order to check whether an update breaks any functionalities. This tool is meant to identify bugs introduced accidentally into existing builds and keep previous bugs alive. Functional Testing Tools can be utilised to perform regression tests. Tell me what to understand by referring to an example of leaving systems.
Create and analyze components and modules independently is called component testing. Generally, components are tested for their functions or usability but not restricted to just those components. A system is any component that takes input and produces output. In addition the module code web site screen and the system within the larger system can be included with such a system. Let us examine all components of component 1 together with an e-mail address.
Integration tests are carried out for analyzing components and comparing their functions. This tests the module which is working well individually and shows no errors if integrated. This type of function test is most commonly used in software development and is carried out automatically. Most developers build several different modules in one project. They carry out a comprehensive black and white box functional verification, called unit testing, on individual module assemblies.
Unit tests ensure the functionality to deliver the desired output. In unit tests, developers only look at the interface or the specifications. During the process, the code is tested separately before proceeding to a new section. Unit tests allow for the performance test of code using a code that is likely breaking. In functional studies without unit tests, the smell is possible.
A collection of the best Mobile test automation tools than you can use to test your Mobile Apps.
Testing Tools for Native or cross-platform applications
An open-source mobile test automation tool to test Android and iOS applications. It supports C#, Java, Ruby, and many other programming languages that belong to WebDriver library.
Being one of the leading test automation software, Selendroid tests the UI of Androids based hybrid and native applications and mobile web.
3. MonkeyTalk by Oracle
MonkeyTalk automates the functional testing of Android and iOS apps.
-from $ 99 / month
It is one of the best platforms to test your iOS and Android devices that are having different screen resolutions, OS versions, and HW platforms.
Calabash works efficiently with .NET, Ruby, Flex, Java and other programming languages.
SeeTest Automation is a cross-platform solution. It allows to run the same scripts on different devices.
Android Automation Testing Tools:
Again an open-source tool to test Android applications of all versions and sub-versions.
MonkeyRunner is specifically designed for the testing of devices and applications at the framework/functional level.
3. UI Automator
In order to test the user interface of an app, UI Automator creates functional Android UI test cases. It has been recently expanded by Google.
Automation iOS Testing Tools:
Frank allows to test only iOS applications and software. The open-source framework combines JSON and Cucumber.
2. KIF for iOS
KIF stands for Keep It Functional. It is an open source framework developed for iOS mobile app UI testing. It utilizes the Accessibility APIs built into iOS in order to simulate real user interactions. Tests are written in Objective-C, which is already familiar to iOS developers, but not test teams. Apple’s switch to Swift makes its use of Objective-C a disadvantage going forward.
3. iOS Driver for iOS
iOS Driver utilizes Selenium and the WebDriver API for testing iOS mobile apps. Its default is to run on emulators, where execution is faster and scalable. The current version works with devices, but actually executes more slowly in that case. No app source code requires modification and no additional apps are loaded on the device under test. iOS Driver is designed to run as a Selenium grid node, which improves test speed as it enables parallel GUI testing.
At the moment, there appear to be many test framework solutions looking for problems, but that is to be expected as mobile app development and testing tools continue to be developed at a rapid pace. Every framework has its pros and cons, each of which should be weighted relative to the needs of the testing organization and the software products being delivered.
Beta testing: the rehearsal before showcasing your app to the world. The beta testing phase is a critical one in your app’s life cycle and you need to make the most of it. Finding beta testers is an integral part of this process. You need them to test your app in every possible way to make sure that you weed out all the hidden corner case bugs. But where can you find these beta users and how many of them would be willing to try out your app? We’ll tell you where you can find these users and, lucky for you, there are tons of early adopters out there who would love to try out your app — and for free!
First, how many beta testers do you need?
A very important question that depends on the size and scope of your application. This number largely depends on the number of features and demographic characteristics of the app and its users (Beta Testing Guide). To be on the safe side, you’ll need between 100-300 beta testers to make sure your users go through all the use cases necessary to ensure your app is clean.
Where can you find these beta testers?
We’ve done the hard work for you and compiled a list of sources — use them!
A great way to get feedback on your product is to put it in front of a bunch of people who have already expressed a desired interested in a specific domain. You can leverage various forums and social media as platforms for displaying your product. However, you need to remember you should be a part of their community or else you will be perceived as a spammer or even worse: an advertiser.
1. HACKER NEWS
By far the biggest online grouping of tech enthusiasts in the Internet universe is Hacker News. If you’re looking for honest and brutal feedback, you won’t find a better place. This is where the smartest and most influential people in the tech world hang out, so it’s still definitely worth it because if you make it on HN, you’ve basically made it in life. Check out how to craft a successful HN post and don’t ever forget to follow the rules!
You may not think they have the most enjoyable user interface but they do have a passionate and extremely involved community. Just like HN, Reddit has its own dedicated community and usually welcomes those with karma with an open heart. The good thing about Reddit is that you’ll find a subreddit for literally EVERYTHING so make sure you target the right ones and make your post count. Check out our subreddit suggestions for startups and mobile apps and have a look at the Reddit rules while you’re at it:
3. PRODUCT HUNT
You will be hard pressed to find a more engaging platform than Product Hunt with such a passionate following and community. The world’s best and brightest product managers and tech lovers constantly stay up to date with Product Hunt to get a feel of what is going on in the tech world. Making a splash on Product Hunt would bring you a vast number of users who would be eager to use your app.
4. BETA DIRECTORIES
Another great way to get your idea out there is sharing it on a beta directory to attract passionate techies and early adopters. The downside is that these users are more curious than loyal and probably won’t be sticking around for too long. Since they’ve signed up to receive all kinds of beta products, they end up not being the most engaged. You’ll still end up with a bunch of beta testers and your SEO will benefit from the links these directories will provide. Here’s a list of the best beta directories you’ll find to get your beta users:
- Museum of Modern Betas
5. STARTUP DIRECTORIES
If you’re confident in your product and you’re ready to get even more users, I encourage you to list your startup in any of the popular startup directories that publish frequent reviews on the hottest apps and startups. Tons of early adopters and tech lovers follow and subscribe to these sites, so you’re bound to attract their attention. The best products will always get significant traction and conversions. Here’s a list of the startup directories we think will help you get the most beta users:
Quora is one of those places with a fast-growing community that can have a very positive impact on your app’s success. The catch is that you’ll need to build up your own community by demonstrating expertise in a specific niche. Show your genuine care and passion for your domain by offering your insights on various threads within your niche. This will pay dividends and people will eventually be willing to help you in return with your own app or startup.
Nobody will be more willing to try out your app more than those who already hate your competitor. Hunt for them, find them, and show them. You will find that unhappy users are your friends.
Here’s a list of hashtags that could be useful to you:
Let’s be real here: No app or startup grows without some true grit and hustle. Leverage social media to attract beta testers to your app. Don’t be afraid to try your own methods and see what works for you. Try Facebook groups, Twitter hashtags relevant to your product, follow relevant Twitter lists, try Pinterest, use your alma matter or high school if that could be useful. Don’t leave any stone unturned.